Skip to main content

Full text of "The Ramayana: Book 7, Uttara Kandam"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . qooqle . com/| 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Translated into English Prose from the original 
Sanskrit of Valmiki. 


M ra Oe r ii > m 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vynchi Bala Sir Rama Varma 
kulasekhara klritapatl manney sultan maha- 
RAJA Raja Ramraja Bahabur Shamshir Jung 
Knight Grand Commander of most Emi- 
nent order of the Star of India. 

7gK afjaraja of ^xavancoxe. 



In testimony of his veneration for His Highness and in 
grateful acknowledgement of the distinction conferred upon 
him while in His Highness* capital, and the great pecuniary 
help rendered by his Highness in publishing this work. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^ 3oVkAotC 



\Jn the Rakshasas having been slain, all the ascetics, for 
the purpose of congratulating Raghava, came to Rama as 
he gained (back) his kingdom. Kau^ika, and Yavakrita, and 
Gargya, and Galava, and Kanva — son unto Madhatithi, — 
. who dwelt in the east, (came thither) ; aikl the reverend 
Swastyastreya, and Namuchi,and Pramuchi, and Agastya, and 
the worshipful Atri, aud Sumukha, and Vimukha, — who dwelt 
in the south, — came in company with Agastya.* And 
Nrishadgu, and Kahashi, and Dhaumya, and that mighty 
sage — Kau^eya — who abode in the western "quarter, came 
there accompanied by their disciples. And Vasishtha and 
Ka^yapa and Atri and Vicwamitra with Gautama and 
Jamadagni and Bharadwaja and also the seven sages,t who 
. (or aye resided in the northern quarter, (came there). And 
on arriving at the residence of Raghava, those high-souled 
ones, resembling the fire in radiance, stopped at the gate, 
with the intention of communicating their arrival (to Rama) 
through the warder. And that foremost of ascetics— the 
righteous Agastya — versed in various branches of learning 
and cognizant of the Vedas along with their branches, — 
addressed the warder,saying, — "Do thou say unto Dacaratha's 
son that we — the sages — have come (here)," Then at the 

* The name of Agastya had before been just specified among the in- 
comers ; but so it is in the text. — T. 

f Ursa Major t or the great bear, the seven stars of which are the souls 
of as many saints,~Marichi, Atrai, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and 
Vasistha.— T 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1554 RAM AY ANA. 

words of Agastya, the gate-keeper quick* and swift presented 
himself with celerity before the high-souled Raghava. And 
that one versed in polity and emotional expressions, of 
worthy ways, possessed of ability.and endowed with patience, 
swiftly seeing R&ma resembling the full moon in brightness, 
communicated unto him the arrival of that supreme of 
saints — Agastya. Hearing of the arrival of the anchorets, 
possessed of the effulgence of the sun new-risen, he answer- 
ed the warder, saying,— "Do thou usher them in, having 
regard to their comfort." And seeing the ascetics before 
him, R§ma with joined hands worshipped their feet with 
arghyas, and with regard consecrated a cow unto each,— 
and saluting them with a collected mind, he ordered seats 
(for the saints). And having, according to their rank, seated 
themselves on gorgeous and superb seats of Ku^a or deer- 
skins embroidered with gold, those foremost of sages — those 
mighty saints, versed in the Vedas, — along with their disciples 
and leaders,having (previously) been asked as to their welfare, 
addressed RSma.saying, — "O son of Raghu. O mighty-armed 
one, complete welfare is ours. By good luck it is that we see 
thee fortunate, with all thy foes finished. By good luck it is 
that,0 king.Ravana — destroyer of creatures — hath been slain 
by thee. Sure,0 was no great matter for thee (to slay) 
Ravana along with his sons and grandsons. Furnished with 
thy bow, thou canst, without doubt, destroy the three worlds 
themselves. By good fortune it is, O Rama, that Ravana 
along with his sons and grandsons hath been slain by thee. 
By good fortune it is that to-day we see thee victorious 
along with Sita, and, O righteous-souled one, with thy 
brother, Lakshmana, (ever) compassing thy profit. (By good 
fortune it is) that, O king,, to-day we behold (thee) in 
company with thy mothers and thy brothers. By good 

* Turnam — according to the commentator, is mental celerity, and 
drutam— physical. This distinction, however, is seldom, if ever, observed by 
Sanskrit authors. — T. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fortune it is that those night-rangers, Prahasta, and Vikata, 
and Virup&ksha, and Mahodara, and the unconquerable 
Akampana, have all been slain (by thee). By good fortune 
it is, O Rlma, that he than whose proportions there are no 
other's greater on earth, — even Kumbhakarna, was brought 
down (by thee). By good luck it is, O Rama, that those 
highly powerful night-rangers, Tri^iras and Atikaya and 
Devantaka and NarSntaka, have been slain by thee. By 
good luck it is that thou hadst been encountered in a hand- 
to-hand combat with that foremost of Rakshasas, incapable 
of being slain by the celestials themselves ; and achieved 
victory (ultimately). To defeat Ravana in battle was (for thee) 
a small matter ; but jt is a piece of good fortune that 
Ravana's son, who had confronted thee for combat, hath 
been slain (by thee) in battle. By good fortune it is that thou, 
O mighty-armed one, hadst been liberated from (the bonds 
of) that foe of the celestials whose course resembled that of 
Time ;* — and that thou also hadst secured victory. Hearing 
of the destruction of Indrajit, we congratulate thee (on thy 
success). He was incapable of being slain by all creatures, 
and in battle possessed mighty powers of illusion. Hearing 
that Indrajit slain, amazement hath seized us all. Having 
conferred on us this holy freedom from fear, O Kakutstha 
O repressor of enemies, thou through good fortune, wilt 
grow in victory." Hearing the speech of the ascetics of 
sacred souls, Rama, coming under the influence of a mighty 
wonder, said with joined hands, — "Ye worshipful ones 

wherefore, passing by those exceedingly powerful ones 

Kumbhakarna and the night-ranger, R§vana — do ye praise 
Havana's son ? Wherefore, passing by Mahodara, and 
Prahasta, and the TUkshasa — VirupSksha— and Matta, and 

Unmatta, and the irrepressible DevSntaka and Narantaka 

redoubtable heroes all — do ye extoll Havana's son ? And 

wherefore, passing by Atikaya and Trigiras and Dhumraksha, 

* i. e. surpassing perception. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


— that night-ranger — all endowed with exceeding prowess, — 
do ye extoll Ravana's son ? What was his prowess ? And 
what his strength ? And what his might ? And by virtue of 
what cause did he surpass Ravana ? If I can well hear the 
same, (do ye tell it me). I by no means command you. IE 
the thing can bear disclosure, I would hear it. Pray, 
speak out. How was Sakra vanquished by him, and how 
also did he obtain the boon ? And how was the son power- 
ful, — and not his sire — Ravana? How could that Rakshasa, 
surpassing his sire, conquer Sakra in mighty encounter, 
and how did he obtain the boon ? O foremost of anchorets, 
do thou to-day unfold all this unto me, who ask (for the 


Hearing those wards of his, the exceedingly energetic 
Kumbhayoni spoke as follows, — "Having regard to his 
(Indrajit's) energy and might, I shall relate unto thee the 
history of his race, in the light of which thou wilt perceive 
why Ravana's son had been capable of slaying his enemies, 
but could not himself be slain by them. I shall, O Raghava, 
describe unto thee Ravana's race and birth, as well as the 
boon that had been conferred on him. 

''Formerly in the Krita age, O Rama, there was a 
Brahmarshi — lord (of creatures) — son unto Prajapati, and like 
unto the very self of the great-father* His virtues, springing 
from righteousness and excellency of character, are past all 
delineation ; I can only say that, forsooth, he went by the 
name of Prnjapati's son. Verily on account of his being the 
son of Prajapati, he was the darling of the deities -, as by 
virtue of his spotless perfections, that magnanimous one was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


loved of all creatures. And on a religious mission that 
foremost of ascetics, repairing to the asylum of Trinavindu 
at the side of the mighty mountain, Meru, took up his abode 
there. And with his senses centered on the study of the 
Vedas, that rightcous-souled one, going to the hermitage, 
carried on austerities ; but his religious rites were disturbed 
by certain girls. And daughters of sages and Pannagas 
and those of Rajarshis, — as well as those of ApsarSs, sporting, 
arrived at that quarter. And on account of every season 
being genial at that spot and also of the loveliness of 
the wood, the damsels, repairing to this place, ever dis- 
port there. And on account of the beauty of that region, 
those wenches, coming to where that twice-born one, Pulastya 
was, used to sing, to play on instruments, and to dance ; 
and thus those blameless beauties disturbed the rites of that 
anchoret practising austerities. Thereat, the mighty ascetic, 
waxing wroth, said,— 'She that comes within my kin, shall 
conceive.' Hearing the words of the high-souled one, (the 
damsels), afraid of a Br&hmana's curse, ceased to haunt that, 
place. But Trinavindu's daughter had not heard anything 
of all this ; and, going to the asylum, she ranged it fearlessly. 
And she did not see there any of her associates come to that 
spot. And at that time that exceedingly energetic and 
mighty sage, Praj&pati's son, with his soul sanctified through 
asceticism, was engaged in the study of the Veda. And, 
hearing the sounds of Vaidika recitation, and seeing that 
storehouse of asceticism, she had her body turned pale, and 
signs of pregnancy displayed themselves. And, seeing that 
evil befall her, she was wrought up with anxiety ; and, 
understanding matters, she said, — c What is this 7 And, 
going to her father's hermitage, stayed there. And, seeing her 
in this condition, Trinavindu said, — 'Wherefore is the person 
that thou bearest unlike what it used to be ?' Thereat, in 
woe-begone guise, with joined hands, his daughter replied 
unto that one having asceticism for bis riches,— 'O father, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


cause know I none whereby I have come by this appearance. 
But, searching for my associates, 1 had ere this alone repaired 
to the noble asylum of the Maharshi Pulastya of a purified 
spirit. But associate found there I none, that had come 
thither. And seeing this change for the worse of my form, 
I from fear have come hither.' Thereat the RSjarshi, 
Trinavindu, having a. live effulgence through asceticism, 
entered into contemplation, and saw the consequence of the 
safe's act. And coming to know that curse of the Maharshi 
of a purified spirit, he, taking his daughter, went to Pulastya 
and said, — c O worshipful one, O mighty sage, do thou accept 
this daughter of mine, adorned with her native perfections, 
who of herself hath come to thee as alms.* She will, 
without doubt, constantly tend thee, practising asceticism, 
and having thy senses fatigued.' When that virtuous (sage), 
had said this, the twice-born Rajarshi, desirous of accepting 
the girl (after due nuptial rites), said unto the former,— 
'Well !' Having given away his daughter, the king went 
.(back) to his asylum ; and the girl stayed there, gratifying 
her husband with her virtues. And that best of ascetics was 
gratified with her character and behavior. And well pleased 
(with her), that highly energetic one said,— 'O thou of 
shapely hips, well-pleased am I with thee with thy wealth 
of worth, and therefore, O exalted one, I will to-day confer 
on thee a son like unto thyself, who will perpetuate both 
the lines* — being celebrated as Paulastya. And as thou hadst 
heard the Veda recited by me, so, without doubt, he shall be 
named Vigravd.'^ Thus addressed, that noble damsel with 
her soul wrought up with delight, in a short time brought 
forth her son Vigrava, famed over the three worlds and 
furnished with virtue and fame ; versed in the Vedas, of an 

* Compare Lear : — ' Let your study Be to content your lord who hath 
received you At fortune's alms. 1 — Act I., Sc. I., lines 67—69. 
t i. e. maternal and paternal lines. 
% From the root, Sru — to hear. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


impartial spirit, and ever engaged in observing vows. And 
the ascetic, Vifravd, was furnished with asceticism even like 
his sire. 


jf\.ND Pulastya's son — that prime of ascetics — Vi^rava — 
in a short time was engaged in asceticism like his father. 
And he was truthful, and of excellent character and controlled 
senses ; was ever engaged in the study of the Vedas ; and was 
of a sanctified spirit ; and he was not addicted to any of the 
pleasures of life, and was always studious of religion. 
Learning of his ways, that mighty ascetic, Bharadwaja, gave 
unto *Vi9rava for his wife, his own daughter, Devavarnini. 
And having religiously wed Bharadwaja's daughter, that 
foremost of ascetics, Vi^ava, conceiving the highest delight, 
began to reflect on the welfare of his offspring with an 
intelligence concentrated on them. And on her that one 
cognizant of righteousness begot a child, exceedingly wonder- 
ful, endowed with energy, and adorned with all Brahma* 
qualities. On his having been born, his grand-father was 
rejoiced, and, marking the profitable intelligence (of the boy, 
he thought that) he would be the lord of riches. And well- 
pleased, (Pulastya) in company with the Devarshis (thought), 
—'Inasmuch as this is Vigrava's offspring, and as he 
resembles Vi9rava himself, so he should be known by the 
name of Vai^ravana. And then the exceedingly energetic 
Vai9ravana, repairing to the wood of asceticism, increased 
(in power) like unto a fire fed by sacrificial oblations. And 
as he was staying in the hermitage, that high-souled one 

* Such as self-control, asceticism, purity, etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1560 RA MAYAN A. 

thought, — i shall practise prime righteousness : verily virtue 
is the supreme way.' And for a thousand years, he, having 
his senses controlled, practised rigid austerities in that 
mighty forest, observing (all the while) the most rigorous 
restrictions. And on a thousand years having been numbered, 
he by turns observed the rules relative to each term ; (at 
first) living on water, (then) on air, and (last) going absolute- 
ly without any fare. Thus passed away a thousand years 
like one. And then the highly energetic Brahmsi along 
with Indra and the celestials, coming to that asylum, addressed 
(Vai9ravana), saying, — *0 child, I am well-pleased with 
thee for this act of thine, O thou of excellent vows. Do thou, 
good betide thee, ask for the boon (that thou wouldst have), 
for, O magnanimous one, thou art worthy of a boon.' Then 
Vai9navana said unto the great-father, who was present,— 
'O reverend one, I crave for the power of maintaining and 
protecting people.' Thereat, BrahmS along with the deities 
gladly said in a gratified spirit, — 'Very well ! I am about 
to create the fourth of the Protectors of creatures — Yama, 
Indra and Varuna, — the position which is sought for by thee. 
Do thou, O thou cognizant of righteousness, attain the same ; 
do thou receive the position of the lord of riches. Thou 
shalt be the fourth among Sakra, the lord of waters, etc. 
And do thou take for thy vehicle this car, named Pushpaka, 
resembling the Sun himself) and thus raise thyself to an 
equality with the celestials. Good betide thee ! We shall 
(now) go whither we had come, having, my child, done my 
duty and bestowed on thee the couple of boons/ Having 
said this, Brahma along with the celestials went to his own 
quarters. On the deities with Brahma at their head, having 
departed for the heavenly regions, the self-possessed lord 
of wealth of subdued senses with joined hands spoke 
unto his sire, saying, — 'O reverend one, I have received 
the wished-for boon from the great-father, but the exalted 
lord of creatures hath not fixed any abode for me. Therefore, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


O lord, do thou seek out some dwelling (u» mir, where no 
creature whatever can come by misfortune. ' Thus accosted 
by his son, that best of ascetics, Vicrava, spoke, O righteous 
one, — 'Listen ! O excellent one. On the shore of the 
Southern sea there is a mount named Trikuta. On its brow 
is a beautiful and broad city built by VicwakarmS, named 
Lanka, resembling the city itself of Indra the great, designed 
for the abode of Rakshasas, — like unto the Amaravati of 
Indra. There in Lanka, do thou, forsooth, reside. That 
romantic city is surrounded with a golden wall and a moat, 
and is furnished with engines and weapons ; and hath gate- 
ways of gold and lapises. Formerly she was renounced by the 
Rakshasas afflicted wiih the fear of Vishnu ; and was empty 
of swarms of Rakshas, who had gone to the nethermost 
regions. Now Lanka is vacant, — and there is no one that 
lords it over her. Do thou, my child, for abode, at thine ease 
repair thither. Thy stay there shall meet with no rub, and 
no manner of disturbance shall occur there.' Hearing the 
righteous speech of his sire, that virtuous-souled one along 
with thousands of delighted and joyous Rakshasas, began to 
reside in Lanka stationed on the top of the mount. In a 
short time (Lanka), through his sway, abounded (in wealth). 
And that foremost of Nairitas, the righteous son of Vicrav5, 
well-pleased, abode in Lanka having the Ocean for her 
entrenchment. At times the righteous-souled lord of riches, 
mounted on Pushpaka, in humble guise visited his father and 
mother. And hymned by hosts of deities and Gandharbas, 
having his mansion graced with the dancing of Apsaras, and 
floating on rays like the sun himself, that ruler of riches 
went to his sire." 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



.CLEARING the words uttered by Agastya, RSma 

wondered as to how formerly RSkshasas were generated 

in Lanka. And then shaking his head, he, struck with 

wonder, momentarily eying Agastya, addressed Agastya 

resembling fire, saying,— "O worshipful one, hearing thy 

words that formerly LankS had been in the possession of the 

flesh-eaters, I have been seized with great amazement. We 

had heard that the Rakshasas had sprung in the race of 

Pulastya. But now thou hast said that they owe their origin 

to a different source. But were they more powerful than 

Ravana and Kumbhakarna and Prahasta and Vikata and the 

sons of RSvana ? Who was their progenitor ? And what was 

the name of that one of terrific strength ? And through what 

transgression were they driven out by Vishnu ? AH this, O 

sinless one, do thou tell me in detail, and do thou dispell my 

curiosity even as the sun dispells darkness. ,, 

Hearing Raghava's words, fair and fraught with polished 
phrase and period, Agastya, struck with surprise, said unto 
RSghava, — "The lord of creatures sprung from water, first 
created water. And the lotus-born one generated creatures 
for protecting that element. And thereupon those creatures 
humbly presented themselves before the creator, saying,— 
'Whait shall we do ? We are sore tried by hunger and thirst.' 

The lord of creatures, laughing, addressed them, saying, 

'Ye men, do ye carefully guard this (water)/ Thereat some 
said 'Rakshama/* and others 'Yakshama.'t Thus accosted 

by those afflicted with hunger and thirst, the creator said 

'Those among you who have said 'Rakshama/ shall be 

* i. e. we shall protect 
t We shall worship. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


R&kshasa? ; and those among you, who have said 'Yaksli&ma,' 
shall be Yakshas. And there sprang the brothers— repressors 
of foes — Heti and Praheti— lords of R&kshasas, resembling 
Madhu Kaitava himself. Praheti, who was righteous, went 
to the wood of asceticism. And Heti exerted himself to the 
utmost to get himself wived. And that magnanimous one of 
immeasurable soul married the exceedingly terrific sister of 
K&la, named Bhaya.* And on her Heti— foremost of 
R&kshasas and best of those having sons— begat a son, 
known as Vidyutkefa. And Heti's son, the exceedingly 
energetic Vidyutke^a; possessed of the splendour of the sun, 
grew up even like a lotus in water. And when that night- 
ranger arrived at proper youth, his sire turned his attention 
towards his marriage. And that best of R&kshasas — Heti— 
in the interests of his son asked for the hand of Sandhy&'s 
daughter, like unto Sandhy&t herself in potency. SandhyS, 
reflecting that she needs must have to be given away 
by her, bestowed her on Vidyutke^a, O R&ghava. 
Having obtained Sandhy&'s daughter, the night-ranger, 
Vidyutke^a, sports with her even as Maghav&n doth with the 
daughter of PulomS. And it came to pass that after a length 
of time, O Rama, Sal a KatankaUk was filled with child by 
Vidyutke^a, as the clouds are furnished with water by the 
Ocean. And then repairing to Mandara,the Rakshasi brought 
forth her child, having the splendour of rain-charged 
clouds ; even as Gangft had delivered herself of the child 
begotten by Fire.J And having delivered herself of her 
offspring, she again became bent on disporting with 
Vidyutke$a. And then forsaking her son, she began to sport 
with her husband ; and the child having sounds resembling 
the rumbling of cloud*, was renounced (by his mother). And 
forsaken by them both, the infant furnished with the bright- 

* Fear. 

t The evening Twilight — spouse of the Sun.— T. 

% Mahefwara. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1564 RAM AY ANA. 

ness of the autumnal sun, entering his clenched fist into his 
mouth, began to cry slowly. And it so fell that, journeying 
with PSrvati, Siva, Tiding his bull through the aerial regions, 
heard the sounds of weeping.. And along with UmS, he 
saw the Rakshasa's" son, as he was crying. And sent by 
Parvati, whose heai was moved by compassion, Bhava — 
destroyer of Tripur5-^-made that RSLkshasa's offspring attain 
the age of his mother, and conferred on him immortality. 
And for compassing PSrvati's pleasure, Mahadeva, in- 
destructible and undeterrorating, granted (the RSkshasa) the 
power of ranging the air. Ami, son of the king, Um& also ' 
bestowed a boon : 'Henceforth the RSkshasis shall cbriceive 
in a day, bring forth (child) in a day, and the child shall in 
a day be furnished with the age of its mother.' And then 
the great and magnanimous Sukeca, puffed up with the 
receipt of the boons, having obtained auspiciousness at the 
hands of the lord, Hara-, began to range everywhere, even as 
Purandara did on having obtained heaven." 


OEEING Sukeca righteous and furnished with the boon, 
a virtuous Gandharvi, named Gr&mani, of the effulgence of 
fire, who had a daughter, called Devavati, like unto a second 
Sri herself, famed over the three worlds, and endowed with 
beauty and youth, — bestowed her on Sukeca as if he had 
bestowed the goddess of fortune of the Rakshas. And like an 
indigent person on obtaining wealth, Devavati, on obtaining 
her beloved husband, affluent in consequence of having 
received the boon, was (greatly) delighted. And in hrr 
company, that night-ranger appeared graceful, even as a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


mighty elephant sprung from Anjan** doth in the company 
of a she-elephant. In good time Suker^a, O RSghava, begot 
(on her) three sons, resembling the three Fires. And that 
lord of R&kshasas begot (on her) three sons, resembling his 
three eyes— the Rakshasas, Malyav&n; Sum&li and that 
foremost of the strong — Mali ; all resemblingthe three worlds 
possessing themselves in calmness ; like unto the three Fires 
established ; fierce like unto the three mantras,— -dreadful 
like three diseases springing respectively from morbid Air, 
Bile and Phlegm.t And the sons of Suke9a, having the 
energy of the three Fires, grew up like a disease which hath 
been disregarded. And learning that their father had 
received a boon by virtue of his power proceeding from 
asceticism, the brothers, firmly resolved, went to Meru for 
practising penances. And adopting rigid restrictions, the 
Rakshasas, O best of kings, entered upon austerities, terrible, 
and capable of arousing the fear of all beings. And practis- 
ing penances rare on earth with truth and candour and 
self-control, they afflicted the three worlds with gods, Asuras 
and human beings. Then that lord— the four-faced one- 
stationed on a superb car, addressed Suke<?a's sons, saying,— 
'I am for conferring boons (on you). 9 Knowing that Brahma 
surrounded by Indra and the other celestials was ready to 
bestow boons, they, with joined hands, said, trembling like 
trees, 'O god that hast been adored through asceticism, 

* The designation of an elephant. 

f The entire edifice of Hindu Pathology is based on the three-fold division 
of the morbid humours into Air, Bile and Phlegm. This division, albeit it 
may appear crude and unscientific to Europeans, taken all, in all, wonderfully 
answers its purpose. The tact displayed by Hindu physicians in diagnosing 
diseases on this method is wonderful From feeling the Pulse alone, a Hindu 
physician, getting at the predominance of one or more morbid humours of the 
system, can accurately ascertain a patient's health. The infallibility with 
which predictions of death are generally made, attests the scientific sound- 
ness of the division in question, and renders superfluous any elaborate 
argument in its defence.— T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1566 RAMA YANA. 

if thou dost intend to confer on us a boon, let us be 
invincible, capable of slaying foes, immortal, lordly, and ever 
devoted to each other. 1 Thereat, saying 'So be it/ unto the 
sons of Suke9a, the lord Brahma, (ever) cherishing BrShmanas 
with affection, went to the Brahma regions. O Rama, having 
obtained the boons, those night-rangers, rendered intrepid 
in consequence of having the boon conferred on them, began 
to disturb celestials and Asuras. And like unto men abiding 
in hell, the celestials, Charanas and hosts of sages, being 
harassed (by Rakshasas),did not find any deliverer. And then, 
O foremost of the Raghus, the Rakshasas, assembled together, 
joyfully said unto the undeteriorating Viswakarma — prince 
of artists, — 'Thou by thy own energy art the architect of the 
great gods, endowed with energy and prowess and strength. 
Do thou, O magnanimous one, construct a fabric for us after 
our heart hard by Himavan, or Meru, or Mandara. And do 
thou erect a magnificent mansion for us resembling the 
mansion itself of Mahe^wara.' Thereat Vigwakarma— the 
mighty-arm of the Rakshasas — spoke of a building like the 
AmarSvati of Sakra, 'On the shore of the Southern sea is a 
mountain named Trikuta. A second atao is there called 
Suvela, ye lords of Rakshasas. On the midmost peak of that 
mountain resembling clouds, inaccessible even to the 
fowls of the air, all the four quarters have been hewn with 
bones.* If I am desired by you, I can construct the city of 
Lank5 (there), having an area of thirty Yayanas, and 
measuring an hundred in length j surrounded with a golden 
wall and furnished with golden gateways. In her do ye 
dwell, ye irrepressible ones, ye foremost of Rakshasas ; even 
as do the celestials with Indra, approaching Amaravati. 
And occupying the citadel of Lanka, backed by innumerable 
Rakshasas, ye will be invincible to foes and capable of 
destroying them.' Hearing Vi^wakarma's speech, those 
foremost of Rakshasas, accompanied by thousands of 

* Tar ^a— may also mean a hatchet or a sword. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


followers, went to the palace and set up in the same, having 
a strong wall and a moat, abounding in hundreds of golden 
edifices. And obtaining Lanka, the night-rangers, exceed- 
ingly delighted, began to dwell therein. At this time, O 
Raghava, there lived at her pleasure a Gandharvi, named 
NarmadS. O son of Raghu, she had three daughters, 
resembling Sri, Hri, and Kirti in splendour. And albeit no 
Rakshasi herself, she, beginning with the eldest, gladly 
married, to the R&kshasas her daughters having faces 
resembling the full moon. And under the influence of the 
star, Bhagadaivata, those three exalted daughters of a 
Gandharvi were respectively conferred by their mother on the 
three several Rakshasas of eminence. And having wedded, 
O Rama, Sukesa's sons began to sport with their wives, like 
celestials sporting with Apsaras. Malyav&n's beautiful spouse 
was named Sundari. On her he begot, do thou understand, 
whom ; — Vajramusthi, and VirupSksha, and the Rakshasa— 
Burmukha, — and Suptaghna, and Yajnakopa, and Matta and 
Unmatta ; and, O Rama ; there was also born a lovely 
daughter of Sundari, Anala. And Sumali's wife, of face like 
the full Moon, named Ketumati, was dearer to him than his 
life itself. O mighty king, do thou, gradually, know the 
offspring that were begot by Sumali on Ketumati, — Prahasta, 
and Kampana, and Vikata, and Kalikamukha, and Dhum- 
raksha, and Danda, and the redoubtable Suparcwa, and 
Sanhradi, and Praghasa, and the Rakshasa, Bhasakarna, and 
Rak&, and Pashpotkati, and Kaikasi of luminous smiles, 
and Kumbhinasi — these are known as the offspring of Sumali. 
Mali had for wife a graceful Gandharvi, having eyes 
resembling lotus-petals, of a lovely look, and like unto the 
most magnificent Yakshi of them all. Do thou, O master, 
listen to me as I mention to thee,0 R&ghava,the offspring that 
Sumali's younger brother begat on her, — Anala, and Nila, 
and Sampati. These night-rangers — sons unto Mali — were 
the courtiers of Bibhisana. And those three foremost of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Rakshasas, accompanied by .hundreds of sons — night-rangers 
all — elated on account of their measureless prowess, began 
to worry the sages and serpents and Yakshas, and celestials 
with Indra (at their head). And incapable of being confronted 
(in battle), these resembling Death himself in energy,— 
wondrous elated in consequence of the boon having been 
conferred on them, ranging the world like unto the Wind, 
were ever engaged in disturbing the sacrifices (of the sages)." 



HUS afflicted, the deities, sages, and ascetics, wrought 
up with fear, sought the protection of that god of gods— 
Mahecwara — creator and destroyer of the cosmos, — unborn, 
of an unmanifest form, the stay of all creatures, worthy of 
being adored, — and the supreme preceptor (of all). And 
coming to that enemy of Kama* and foe of TripurS— the 
three-eyed (Deity), the gods, with their voices faltering 
through fear, represented with joined hands, — c O reverend 
one, the creatures of the lord of creatures are being (sorely) 
troubled by the sons of Suke^a, given to harassing their 
foes, — swolen with insolence on account of the boon conferred 
on them by the great-father, Our asylums, — constituting 
our refuges,— have been divested of their power of granting 
shelter; and driving off the deities from the etherial regions, 
they are sporting there like the immortals. 'I am Vishnu,' *I 
am Rudra/ 'I am the king of the celestials,' 'I am Yama/ 'I 
am Varuna/ 'I am the Moon/ 'I am the Sun/— flattering 

* The Hindu Cupid. Mahadeva had burnt to ashes Kama, when he had 
the fool-hardiness to disturb the contemplation of the former. By the way, 
Kalidasa has reared his faery fabric,entitled Kumara Sambhava, on the basis of 
this legend.— T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


themselves in this fashion, Mali and Sum&Ii and the R&kshasa 
— Malyavln— as well as those going before them, are 
annoying (the gods), breathing exhilaration of martial spirits. 
Therefore, O god, it behoveth thee to liberate us from fear, 
who have been greatly tormented by it Do thou, assuming 
thy terrific form, slay the thorns of the celestials.' Thus 
addressed by the immortals in a body, that lord, Kaparddi 
of red-blue hue, reflecting that it would be wrong for him to 
destroy Suke^a (with his own hands), spoke unto the gods,— 
4 I shall not slay them, ye gods ; they are incapable of being 
slain by me. But I shall unfold unto you the way in which ' 
they will be destroyed. Do ye, ye Maharshis, in the heat of 
this affair, seek the shelter of Vishnu. That lord will slay 
them.' Thereat, saluting Mahe^wara with the sounds of 
J ay a, (the celestials) afflicted with the fear of the night- 
rangers, presented themselves before Vishnu. And bowing 
down unto the god holding the conch, discus and mace, and 
paying him high homage, they, greatly flurried, addressed him 
about the sons of Suke^a, saying, — 'O god, by virtue of the 
boon (that hath been bestowed on them), resembling the 
three fires, Sukeca's three sons, assailing us, have deprived 
us of our abode. There is a city named Lank&, stationed on 
the top of Trikuta, (extremely) difficult of entrance. Taking 
up their station at that place, the night-rangers in a body 
pursue us. Do thou, O slayer of Madhu, destroy them for our 
welfare. We have sought thy shelter. Become our refuge, 
O foremost of celestials. Do thou dedicate to Yama the 
lotuses of their faces, severed (in pieces) with thy discus. 
Save thee, we have none who can, while tormented with 
fright, inspire us with courage. Slay in encounter the elated 
Rakshasas along with their adherents ; and even as the sun 
drieth up dew, do thou dispell this fear of ours.' Thus 
accosted by the deities, that god of gods — Jan&rddana — who 
bringeth fear unto foes— cheering up the celestials, said unto 
them, — 'I know the RSkshasa, Sukeya, as flushed with the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

157° RAM AY ANA. 

boon bestowed by Ic5na. And I also know his sons, of whom 
MalyavSn is the eldest. Those worst of R£kshasas that have 
over-riden your dignity will I, wrought up with wrath, slay 
(in battle) ; therefore, ye gods, be of good cheer/ Thus 
addressed by the mighty Vishnu, the gods, highly rejoiced, 
went to their respective quarters, extolling JanSrdana. 

"And hearing of the activity of the celestials, the night- 
ranger — MalyavSn — addressed his heroic brothers, saying, — 
'The immortals and sages, going to Sankara, spake these 
words, desirous of our destruction, — The terrific sons of 
Sukeca, puffed up, and swollen on account of their strength 
flowing from the boon, are crossing us at every step. We 
have been overpowered by the R&kshasas. And, O lord of 
creatures, from fear of those wicked-minded ones, we cannot 
remain in our own homes. Therefore, to do us good, do thou, 
O three-eyed one, destroy them ; and, O best of consuming 
ones, do thou with thy roars, burn them up. — Thus addressed 
by the deities, the slayer of Andhaka, hearing their speech, 
said, shaking his head and hands, — Ye gods, Sukeca's sons 
are incapable of being slain by me in battle. But I shall tell 
you the means whereby they may be slain. Do ye seek the 
shelter of him who holdeth the discus and mace in his hands, 
and who is clad in a yellow attire, — of JanSrdana, Hari, even 
of the auspicious Nar5yana.— Having received this counsel of 
Hara, they, rendering reverence unto that enemy of Kama, 
came to the abode of NarSyana and communicated everything 
unto him. Then NSirSyana spoke unto the celestials with 
Indra at their head, — I will slay those foes of the celestials. 
Ye gods, cast off all fear ! — O foremost of Rakshasas, Hari 
promised unto the frightened celestials that he would slay 
us. Therefore do ye think as to what is fit. Hiranyakacipu 
hath met with death (at the hands of Hari), as also other 
enemies of the immortals. And Namuchi and K§lanemi, and 
that foremost of heroes, — SanhrSda — and Radheya, and 
VahumSyi, and the virtuous Lokapala, and Yamala, and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Arjuna, and H3rdikya, and Sumbha and Nicumbhaka, — 
Asuras and DSnavas endowed with strength and possessed of 
terrific prowess— all these, who, having come to the field, had 
never been heard of as worsted, who had performed hundreds 
of sacrifices, who had been well skilled in illusion, who had 
been versed in every branch of knowledge, and who were 
the terrors of their foes — have by hundreds and by 
thousands been destroyed by NSrSyana. Learning this, it 
behoveth you to do what would conduce to the behoof of 
all. It is a sore task to defeat NSrSyana, who wisheth 
to slay us.' Thereat SumSli and M£li, hearing the words 
of Malyavan, said unto their eldest brother, like the 
Acwins addressing Vasava, — 'We have studied, performed 
sacrifices, practised charity, and obtained riches ; and attain- 
ing long health and long life, we have established sterling 
righteousness in our path. And with arms plunging into the 
sea of celestials, we have conquered our unrivalled enemies. 
Therefore, we have no fear touching death. Even Narayana 
and Rudra, Sakra and Yama, ever fear to stay before us (in 
the field). And, O lord of Rakshasas, there is no occasion for 
Vishnu's displeasure of us. The mind of Vishnu hath wavered 
in consequence of the evil caused by the celestials. Therefore 
will we even avenge ourselves on the gods, from whom hath 
sprung this wrong. 1 Having taken counsel together, those 
powerful ones conciliated their forces. And proclaiming (their 
order) that preparations were to be made, all the foremost 
Nairitas sallied forth for battle, like unto those led by Jamva 
and Vritra. And, Rama, having thus taken counsel 
together, with all the preparations complete, those huge- 
bodied and redoubtable Rakshas marched forth for conflict, 
mounted on cars, and elephants, and horses resembling 
elephants, and mules, and kine, and camels, and purpoises,"* 
and serpents, tnakaras, and tortoises, and fishes, and fowls 

* How purpoises could be pressed into the service passes my tonception, 
unless Sigumdra have any other meaning. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

5 57* RAMA Y ANA. 

resembling Garura himself, lions and tigers and boars and 
Srimaras* and CMmaras.f And puffed up with pride of 
prowess, the Rakshas march, leaving Lanka, and the enemies 
of the celestials went to the heavenly regions for battle. And 
perceiving the destruction of Lanka at hand, those deities 
that had taken up their quarters there, everywhere were struck 
with fear and felt their spirits depressed. And mounting 
the best of cars, the Rakshasas by hundreds and thousands 
with intent minds swiftly sallied forth for the celestial 
regions. And the deities (aforementioned) followed the tract 
of the Rakshasas. And at the command of K5la, terrible 
evil omens foreshadowing the destruction of the Rakshasa- 
chiefs began to arise on the earth well as in the sky. The 
clouds showered down bones and hot blood. The oceans 
overleapt their continents ;J and the mountains shook. And 
jackals of terrific forms, having voices resembling the roar- 
ing of clouds, — bursting out into a horse-laugh, began to 
emit cries frightfully. Creatures were one after another 
seen to drop down ; and mighty swarms of vultures, with 
mouths belching forth flames, began to wheel over the 
Rakshasa, like unto Kala himself. And blood-footed pigeons 
and Sarikas§ darted off (around). And crows and two-legged 
cats began to cry in loud accents. But fast bound with 
the noose of Death, the Rakshasas, proud of their strength, 
disregarding these omens, march on, and do not stay their 
course, — Malyavan and Sumali possessed of prodigious 
strength, going before the Rakshasas, like flaming fires. And 
even as the gods take refuge under Dhata, the night-rangers 
take refuge under Malyavan resembling the mountain, 
MalyavSn. And under the command of Mali, that host of 

* Wilson gives the meanings : (i) 'a kind of animal,' and (2) 'a young 
deer.— T. 

+ Bos Gvunn\ens, t 

% Used in the Shafcespercan sense : Vide Macbeth, 

§ A species of harlot. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Rakshasas, roaring like mighty clouds,inspired with the desire 
of victory, went to the celestial regions. And the lord 
N&rfyana, hearing of the preparations of the Rakshasas from 
a celestial messenger, set his heart on fight. And equipped 
with weapons and quivers, he mounted on Vinati's offspring * 
And donning on his mail furnished with the effulgence of a 
thousand suns, fastening his spotless quivers filled with shafts, 
being engirt with his waist-band and bright falchion, and 
equipped with his conch, discus, mace, Sarngaft sword, 
and other superior weapons, that lotus-eyed lord, seated on 
Vinata's offspring like a very mountain, set out speedily for 
compassing the destruction of the Rakshasas. And seated 
on Suparna'sJ back, the blue-brown Hari clad in yellow 
attire resembled a mass of clouds on the crest of the golden 
mountain, with lightning playing through it. And hymned 
by Siddhas and celestials and sages and mighty (semi-divine) 
serpents and Gandharvas and Yakhas, the enemy of the 
Asura hosts presented himself, bearing in his hands the discus, 
sword, that weapon — Sarnga — and the conch. And the 
Rakirbasa- hosts, struck by the wind produced by the wings 
of Suparna, with their pennons swinging to and fro and their 
weapons scattered about, quaked like the blue summit of a 
mountain with its crags tossed about. Then the night-rangers, 
hemming in Madhava,§ began to pierce him with thousands of 
excellent sharpened weapons dyed in flesh and blood, and 
resembling the fire of Doomsday." 

• Garura, Narftyana's vehicle. 

t The bow of Vishnu is so named. 

% Lit. fair-feathered — a name oC Garura. 

S One of the many designations of Vishnu, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ik A 

jtXND as clouds assail a mountain with showers, then 

the Rakshasas, representing clouds, setting up shouts, began 
to assail Nariyana representing a mountain. And Vishnu of 
a bright brown-blue hue, being surrounded by the flower of 
the night-rangers with dark visages, resembled the mountain, 
Anjana, on which the clouds pour down. And as locusts 
(flood) a field, knats (throng) about a flame, gad-flies (cluster) 
around a pot of honey, or makaras (range) the deep, so the 
shafts shot by the bows of the Rakhas, having (the energy of) 
the thunder-bolt and endowed with (the velocity of) the 
wind or thought, pierce Hari as if at the universal dissolu- 
tion. And those mounted on cars (assailed him) with their 
cars, and those mounted on the backs of elephants (assailed 
him) with their elephants, and those riding horses (assailed 
him) with their horses, and the foot-soldiers attacked him, 
stationed in the sky ; and the foremost of Rakshasas resembl- 
ing mountains, by means of darts, rishtis and tomaras 
suspended the respiration of Hari even as the prdnaydma* 
doth that of a twice-born one. On being sore tried by the 
night-rangers, like the great Ocean by the fishes (residing in 
it), that invincible one, taking his Sdrnga, showered shafts 
among the Rakshasas. And with sharpened arrows resembl- 
ing the thunder, and endowed with the velocity of the wind, 
shot from his bow drawn to its fullest stretch, Vishnu cut off 
(Rakshasas) by hundreds and by thousands. And dashing 
away (the Rakshasa ranks) with his arrowy shower, even as 
the wind aroused dasheth away a downpour, that best of 
male beings blew his mighty conch— Panchajanya. And 

* The practice of regulating respiration and finally suspending the same. 
This is practised by the Yogis of India, who attribute wonderful virtues to 
it.— T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


winded by Hari with his utmost might, that water-sprung king 
of conchs, endowed with terrific blares, roared, as if afflicting 
the three worlds. And the sounds of that king of conchs struck 
terror into the R&kshasas, even as in a mighty forest a lion 
(strikes terror into the hearts of) elephants in rut. And 
thereat the horses could not keep their ground, and the 
elephants were reft of their temporal flow, and shorn of their 
virtue at the roars of the conch, heroes began to topple down 
from their cars. And dight with dainty feathered parts having 
heads, the shafts discharged from the Sdrnga, resembling 
thunder-bolts, riving those Rakshas, entered the earth. And 
in that conflict, pierced by the arrows discharged from 
NSrSyana's arm, the R&kshasas began to drop to the ground 
like mountains struck with the thunder-bolt. And the wounds 
on the persons of the foes inflicted by the discus of Vishnu 
discharge blood in streams, like mountains discharging 
streams of red chalk. And the sounds of that king of 
conchs, as well as those of the Sdrnga, combined with the 
roars emitted by Vishnu himself, swallowed up the roars of 
the R&kshasas. And Hari by means of his shafts cut off their 
necks, and arrows, and standards, and bows, and cars, 
and ensigns, and quivers. And like fierce rays streaming 
about from the sun, like torrents dashing from the ocean, like 
elephants coming adown a mountain, or like showers descend- 
ing from clouds, the shafts shot by NdrSyana pursue (the 
foes) by hundreds and by thousands. And even as an 
elephant pursueth a tiger, a tiger a wolf, a wolf a dog, a dog 
a cat, a cat a snake, or a snake a rat, so the mighty Vishnu 
pursueth the R&kshasa host ; and others, (struck down by 
him), measure their lengths on the ground. Then, having des- 
patched thousands of R&kshasas, the destroyer of Madhu blew 
his water-sprung (conch), even as the sovereign of the celes- 
tials filleth clouds (with rain). And agitated by the arrows of 
Niriyana, with their senses bewildered by the blares of the 
conch, the broken RAkshasa forces made for Lanka. And on 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the Rakshasa army having been broken in consequence of the 
beating it got at the hands of Narayana, Sumali with showers 
of shafts resisted Hari in the encounter ; and as a mist 
envelopes the Sun, he envoloped him (with his arrows). 
Thereat, the Rashasas again summoned up their fortitude. 
And fired with rage, that Rakshasa, inflated with insolence 
on account of his strength, setting up a tremendous roar, 
darted at his antagonist in the conflict, thereby seeming to 
revive the Rakshasas. And as an elephant flourishes its 
trunk, that Rakshasa, lifting up his arm adorned with 
ornaments, began to roar from rapture, like a mass of clouds 
lighted up with lightning. And (Vishnu) cut off the head 
flaming with ear-rings of the charioteer of the shouting 
Sumali ; and thereat the horses of that Rakshasa aimlessly 
strayed hither and thither. And with his bewildered steeds 
Sumali wanders like a person deprived of patience, whose 
senses are under a hallucination. And on Sumali's car being 
drawn at random by his steeds, Mali, taking his bow and 
equipped therewith, darted at Vishnu's car and assailed that 
mighty-armed one as he was descending on the field of fight. 
And like birds entering the Krauncha,* the arrows discharged 
from Mali's bow, graced w r ith gold, hit Hari and entered 
(into his body). And thereat, as a person holding his senses 
under subjection is not thrown out of his mental balance, 
Vishnu, assailed in that encounter with thousands of arrows 
shot by Mali, was not disturbed ever so little. And then that 
creator of all beings, the reverend Gadadhara,t twanging his 
bow-string, showered vollies of shafts on Mali. And getting 
at Mali's body, the arrows furnished with the luminousness of 
lightning, drink his blood, like unto serpents drinking nectar. 
And baffling Mali, the holder of the conch, discus, and mace, 
brought down Mali's crown, standard, bow and steeds. And 
then that foremost of night-rangers, on being deprived of his 

* The mountain so named. 

\ Lit. the holder of the mace, a name of Vishnu. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


car, sprang forward, mace in hand, even as a lion bounds up 
from the brow of a hillock. And he with his mace smote at 
the forehead of that lord of birds, even as the Destroyer had 
smitten Icana,* or as Indra smiteth a mountain with his 
thunder-bolt. On being severely struck by Mali with his 
'mace, Garura, writhing in torments, moved the god away 
from the field of battle. On the god having been removed 
from the field by Mali as well as Garura, there arose a mighty 
din of Rakshas roaring (in chorus). And hearing the 
cheers of the Rakshas, Indra's younger brother, the reverend 
Hari, sitting awry on that lord of birds, albeit moved off from 
the scene of conflict, waxing enraged, from a desire of slaying 
(Mali) hurled his disc at him. And thereat the disc, possessed 
of the splendour of the solar disc, and resembling the wheelf 
itself of Kala, flooding all the heavens with radiance, brought 
down Mali's head to the ground. And that head of the lord 
of Rakshasas, terrific to behold, on being cut off (by Vishnu), 
vomitting blood, fell down before (the Rakshasas), as formerly 
Rahu's head had fallen. And then the deities experiencing 
excess of joy set up leonine cheers with might and main, 
crying, — 'Excellent, O god/ Seeing Mali slain, Sumali and 
Malyavan, burning in grief, fled precipitately towards 
Lanka along with their forces. And Garura, being cheered, 
turned round, and growing enraged, as before drove the 
Rakshasas with the wind of his wings. And (some) with their 
lotus-faces cut by the discus, (some) with their chests crushed 
with the mace, (some) with their necks torn off by the plough, 
(some) with their heads riven by the club, and some hewn 
by the sword, and others pierced by arrows, the Rakshasas 
began to drop fast from the sky into the waters of the ocean. 

* There took place an encounter between Rudra and Yama in the Sweta 
forest, for the protection of Markandeya and a certain king. In this battle, 
Yama had smitten Rudra. This is narrated in the Puranas. — T. 

t The wheel of Kala or Time, representing the Reaper consists, remarks 
Ramanuja, of days, months, years, decades, centuries, ceons, etc. — T. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

] 5 73 RAMaYANA. 

And as the thunder-bolt with lightning (riveth) a mighty 
mass of clouds, NSrSyana by means of the thunder-bolts of 
his arrows discharged from his bow, rived the night-rangers 
with their hair dishevelled and streaming (in the wind). And 
the forces having their umbrellas rent, their arms falling off, 
their goodly garments scattered, their entrails coming out and 
their eyes rolling, — became incapable of distinguishing their 
own party from that of the foe. And even like (the roars and 
the vehemence) displayed by elephants on being attacked 
by lions, the roars and the vehemence of the night-rangers 
and their elephants, sore assailed by the Primaeval Lion,"* 
were equal. And driven by Hari's networks of arrows, and 
discharging (all the while) their own showers of shafts, those 
night-rangers resembling the clouds of doom, are driven like 
the veritable clouds of the universal dissolution drifted by 
the wind. And hewn in twain with swords, the foremost 
Rakshasas fell like unto hills (toppling headlong). And the 
£arth was seen to be (covered) with night-rangers resembling 
dark clouds, adorned with jewelled necklaces and ear-rings, 
— falling down, — as if covered with dark mountains dropping 



V_/N that host being sore pressed at its back by Padma- 
n&bha,t Malyavan turned back even as the ocean doth on meet- 
ing with its shore. And with his eyes reddened, that night- 
ranger waxing wroth, shaking his head, addressed that prime 

* • Vishnu as a man-lion had formerly taken the conceit out of Hiranya- 
kacipu — the Asufa king — and slain him, to rid his devotee — Prahlada — of his 
mortal foe in the form of a father. — T". 

f Lit. the lotus-navel ed — a name of Vishnu. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


of male persons — Padmanabha, — saying, — ( Narayana, thou 
art ignorant of the time-honored morality of Kshatriyas ; and 
therefore like a base wight thou slayest us, desisting from 
fight and exercised with fear. O lord of the celestials, he 
that commits the crime of slaying one that desists from 
fight, cannot go to the celestial regions as the fruit of 
meritorious acts. If thou art bent upon battle, O holder of 
the conch, the discus and the mace, taking up my post (here), 
1 shall see (thy strength). Do thou show (me) the same/ 
Seeing Malyavan resembling the mountain, Malyavan, stay, 
the powerful younger brother of the sovereign of the celestials 
spoke unto him,~ r I have removed the fear of the deities, 
affrighted at you, by promising that I will make root and 
branch work with the Rakshasas ; and that same promise I 
am now fulfilling. I should always lay down my life for 
serving the celestials ; and you I will slay even if ye should 
go to the nethermost regions. 1 As that god of gods having 
eyes resembling red lotuses was speaking thus, the lord of 
Rakshasas in high wrath pierced his breast with a dart. And 
hurled by the hand of Malyavan, the dart resonant with bells, 
appeared graceful on Hari's breast like lightning embosomed 
in clouds. Thereat drawing out the same dart, that one 
dear unto the Wielder of the Dart,* having eyes resembling 
red lotuses, aiming at Malyavan, hurled it at him. Thereat 
the dart discharged by the hand of Govinda like unto the Dart 
discharged by the hand of Skanda,rushing towards the Rakshasa 
like a meteor coursing towards the Anjana mountain, 
descended on the spacious chest of the lord of Rakshasas 
decked with the weight of a chain, even as the thunder-clap 
bursts at the summit of a mountain. And on having his mail 
rent, Malyavan was utterly deprived of his senses ; but 
(anon) reposing for a while, he again stood like a moveless 
hill. Then taking up a javelin made of black iron girt with 
many a thorn, he furiously smote that deity on the chest. 

* A name of K&rtikeya — the cclcMial gencidltaijirao. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And that night-ranger delighting in battle, dealing a box at 
Vasava's younger brother, moved away to a distance measur- 
ing a bow's length. And now there arose a mighty tumult 
in the sky of 'Excellent V 'Excellent !' And having struck 
Vishnu, the Rakshasa also hit Garura. Thereat Vinata's son, 
growing enraged, drove the Rakshasas away with the wind 
of his wings, even as a lusty wind bloweth about sere leaves. 
And seeing his elder brother driven by the wind produced 
by the wing's of that bird, Sumali along with his forces, made 
for Lank§. And pushed off by the violence of the wind of 
(Garura's) wings, the Rakshasa Malyavan also, joined by 
his own forces, departed for Lanka, covered with shame. 
Thus, O Rama, O lotus-eyed one, (the Rakshasas) had 
innumerable warriors beaten down and their foremost leaders 
slain. And albeit inflated with pride, they, incapable of 
coping with Vishnu, leaving Lanka, went to the nether 
regions with their wives for dwelling there. O best of the 
Raghus, these Rakshasas of celebrated prowess, related to 
the race of Salakantankata, remained under the leadership 
of the Rakshasa Sumali. All those exalted Rakshasas going 
under the name of Paulastya that had been headed by 
Sumali, Malyavan and Mali, were stronger than Ravana. No 
other than the god Narayana, holding the conch, the discus 
and the mace, could slay those Rakshasas — foes to the 
celestials and thorns in the side of the deities. And thou art 
that eternal god — the four -armed Narayana, — the lord,undeteri- 
orating and unconquerable, sprung to exterminate Rakshasas. 
The creator of beings— that one ever cherishing those seek- 
ing his refuge — appeareth at times to compass the destruction 
of marauders, bringing the religion of people to rack and 
ruin.* Thus, O lord of men, to-day I have truly related unto 

* This tallies wonderfully with the corresponding view given in the BiWe. 
Great men appear in the fulness of time to bring about reforms in 
religion, when, as was the case before the birth of Christ, men have wandered 
^\ farthest from the true path.— T 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


thee at length the origin of the R&kshasas. Again, O foremost 
of the Raghus, do thou understand the matchless birth and 
potency of Ravana and his sons related in detail. And that 
powerful Rakshasa, Sumali, afflicted with the fear of Vishnu, 
along with his sons and grand-sons for a long time ranged the 
nether regions, and the lord of riches resided in Lanka." 


" A 

jCXFTER a while the Rakshasa named Sumali, coming up 

from the nether regions, began to range all over the earth. 
And resembling dark clouds, that lord of R&kshasas decked 
in car-rings of burnished gold, taking his daughter like unto 
Sree herself without her lotus, and wandering over the earth, 
saw the lord of riches journeying in his Pushpaka, going to 
see his sire — that lord, the son of Pulastya. And seeing 
that one resembling an immortal and like unto fire, journey- 
ing on, (Sumali) struck with amazement, entered the nether 
regions from the earth. And that mighty-minded one 
reflected thus, — 'By adopting what measure may the welfare 
of the R&kshasas be brought about, and how can we increase 
(in power) ?' And that great-minded lord of Rakshasas, 
resembling dark clouds, decked in burnished ear-rings of 
gold, then began to reflect. And then the Raksha addressed 
his daughter, named Kaikasi, saying, — 'O daughter, the time 
hath come when I should give thee away. Thy youth is about 
to be passed. (Kept back) by the fear of refusal, no suiter 
hath sought thee (up to this time). But desirous of acquiring 
religious merit, we are striving our best in thy interests. My 
daughter, thou art furnished with every perfection like unto 
Sree herself. The being father to a daughter is misery to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1582 RAM AY AN A, 

every one that seeketh honor. O daughter, one doth not 
know who shall ask for one's daughter. Wherever may a 
daughter be conferred, a daughter stayeth, placing in 
uncertainty the three races* to which she is related. Do thou, 
my daughter, seek for thy husband that best and foremost of 
ascetics sprung in the line of Prajapati — Pulastya's son, — 
Vicrava, and of thyself accept him (for thy lord). And then, 
O daughter, even as is this lord of riches, so thou wilt, without 
doubt, have sons resembling the Sun himself in energy.' Hear- 
ing that speech of his, the daughter for the sake of the dignity 
of her sire, going to where Vicrava was practising penances, 
stood there. In the meanwhile,0 R3ma,that twice-born one — 
Pulastya's son — was performing the Agnihotra, like the fourth 
Fire itself. And without minding that terrific time, (Kaikasi), 
having regard to the dignity of her sire, coming up before 
him, stood (there) hanging her head down towards his feet 
and throwing up the earth with her great foe. And seeing 
that one of shapely hips, having a face fair as the full Moon, 
(that exceedingly high-minded ascetic) flaming in energy 
accosted her thus, — 'O gentle on, whose daughter art thou ? 
And whence dost thou come hither ? And what is thy 
errand ? And for whom (dost thou come) ? O beauteous 
(damsel), truly tell me this.' Thus addressed, the girl, 
with joined hands, said, — 'O ascetic, thou art competent to 
get at my intent by virtue of thy own power. Yet, O 
Brahmarshi, know me as having come here at the mandate of 
my sire. My name is Kaikasi. The rest do thou read 
thyself.' And thereupon, the ascetic, entering into contem- 
plation, said these words, — 'O gentle lady, I have learnt the 
purpose that is in thy heart. O thou having the gait of a 
mad elephant, there reigns a powerful desire in thee for 
having offspring. Inasmuch as thou hast come to me at this 
fierce hour, hearken, thou amiable one, as to the kind of 
offspring that thou shalt bring forth. Thou shalt, O thou of 
* The races respectively of her father, mother and husband. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


graceful hips, bring forth terrible and grim-visaged Rakshasas 

delighting in frightful friends, and of cruel deeds.' Hearing 

his speech, she, bowing down, said, — '() reverend (ascetic), 

such sons of terrific ways seek 1 not from thee that followcst 

the Veda. Therefore it behoveth thee to favor me.' On 

being thus besought by the girl, Vicrava — best of ascetics— 

again addressed Kaikasi, like the full Moon addressing 

Rohini,* — *0 fair-faced one, the son that thou bringest forth 

last, shall be like unto my line, — he shall, without doubt — be 

righteous-souled.' Having been thus accosted, the girl, O 

Rama, after a length of time brought forth a very terrible and 

hideous offspring having the form of a Raksha, — having ten 

necks, furnished with large teeth, and resembling a heap of 

collyrium, with coppery lips, twenty arms, huge faces, and 

flaming hair. On his having been born, jackals with flaming 

mouths and other ferocious beasts began to gyrate on the 

left. And that god showered down blood ; and the clouds 

uttered forth harsh sounds. And the Sun was deprived of his 

splendour ; and meteors began to dart to the earth. And the 

earth shook ; and the wind swept away violently. And that 

lord of streams — the ocean, which was calm before, became 

agitated. And his sire resembling his grand-father named 

him, (saying),— 'As this one hath been born with ten necks, 

he shall be called Ten-necked.' After him was born 

Kumbhakarna endowed with prodigious strength, than whose 

proportions there are none other's on earth. Then was born 

she that, having a frightful visage, gocth under the name of 

Surpanakha ; the righteous Bibhishana is the youngest son of 

Kaikasi. On that one endowed with great strength having 

been born, blossoms were showered down from heaven ; and 

celestial kettle-drums were sounded in the heavenly regions. 

And then there arose the sounds of 'Excellent !' 'Excellent !' 

And in that extensive forest those exceedingly energetic ones 

— Kumbhakarna and the Ten-necked one grew up, — and 

* Hesperus. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t 5 84 RAMAYANA. 

became the sources of anxiety to people. And Kumbhakarna, 
maddened to the height, devouring mighty saints devoted to 
religion, constantly ranged the triune world in a dissatisfied 
spirit. But the righteous Bibhishana, ever intent on piety, 
dwelt there, studying the Veda, restraining his fare, and 
controlling his senses. And it came to pass that after a 
length of time the god, Vaicravana — lord of riches — came to 
see his sire, mounted on Pushpaka. Seeing him, the 
Rakshasi — Kaikasi — flaming up in energy, coming to the 
Ten-necked one, represented to him, — 'O son, behold thy 
brother, Vaicravana, enfolded in effulgence ; and, albeit of 
equal fraternity, behold thee in this plight ! Therefore, O 
Ten-necked one, O thou of measureless prowess, do thou so 
strive that thou also, my son, may be like Vaicravana himself. 1 
Hearing that speech of his mother, the powerful Ten-necked 
one was wrought up with exceeding great ill-will,and he vowed 
then, — 'I truly promise unto thee that I will be equal to my 
brother (in energy), or excell him in it. Therefore do thou 
cast off this sorrow that is in thy heart/ And influenced by 
that passion, the Ten-necked one with his younger brother 
began to perform rigid acts, with his mind fixed on asceticism. 
*I must through austerities have my wish/ thus fixed and 
resolved, he for compassing his end, came to the sacred 
asylum of Gokarna. And there the Rakshasa of unrivalled 
prowess along with his younger brother carried on austerities 
and thus gratified that lord — the great-father. And being 
gratified (with him), he conferred on him boons bringing on 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



JLhen R£ma spoke unto the ascetic, — "0 Brahmana, how 
did those exceedingly mighty brothers carry on austerities 
in that forest; and what kind of penances was theirs?" 
Thereat there Agastya said unto Rama of a complacent 
mind, — "The brothers severally observed the morality proper 
to each. And Kumbhakarna, putting forth his best energies, 
constantly abode in the path of righteousness. And remain- 
ing in the midst of five fires in summer,he practised austerities, 
and in the rainy season, soaked in water (poured down) by 
clouds, he sat in .the heroic attitude.* And in winter he always 
remained in the water. Thus passed away ten thousand 
years of that one putting forth exertions in behalf of religion, 
and established in the path of honesty. And the virtuous 
Bibhishana, ever intent on virtue and pure of spirit, remained 
standing on one leg for five thousand years. And when he 
had completed (his term* of restriction), swarms of Apsar§s 
danced, and blossoms showered, and the deities hymned 
(him). And for five thousand years, he adored the Sun, and 
with his mind concentrated in the study of the Veda, remained 
with his head and hands raised up. In this wise Bibhishana 
like a deity in Nandana passed away ten thousand years, 
observing restrictions. And the Ten-necked one passed ten 
thousand years without fare. On a thousand years being 
complete, he offered his own head as a sacrifice to Fire. In 
this way he passed away nine thousand years ; and nine of 
his heads entered into Fire. And as in the tenth year he 
intended to strike off his tenth head, the Great-father present- 
ed himself at that place. And well-pleased, the Great-father 
came there along with the celestials. ( Ten-necked one,' 

* Hindu Yogis practise various attitudes, which are favorable to the 
regulation of respiration. — T, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1586 RAMA YANA. 

said (the Great-father), 'I am well-pleased with thee. Do thou, 
O thou cognizant of righteousness, at once ask for the boon 
that thou wishest to have. What wish of thine shall I realize ? 
Thy toil must not go for nothing. 1 Thereat, the Ten-necked 
one, bowing down his head unto the deity,said with a delighted 
heart, — his words faltering with ecstacy, — 'O Reverend one, 
creatures have no other fear than (that of) death ; and enemy 
there is none that is like unto death. Therefore immortality 
is even what I crave for.' Thus accosted, Brahma spoke unto 
the Ten-necked one, — 'Thou canst not be immortal. Do thou 
therefore ask of me some other boon.' Thus addressed by the 
creator, Brahma, the Ten-necked one, O Rama, standing 
before him with joined hands, said, — 'O lord of creatures, I 
would, O eternal one, be incapable of being slain by birds and 
serpents, Yakshas, Daityas, Danavas and Rakshasas, and the 
deities ; for, O thou that art worshipped by the immortals, 
anxiety I have none from any other beings. Indeed, I deem 
as straw creatures such as men etc! Thus accosted by the 
Raksha — the Ten-necked one— that righteous-souled one, the 
Great-father, along with the celestials, said, — «0 foremost of 
Rakshasas, what thou sayest shalj come to pass.' Having, 
O Rama, said this unto the Ten-necked one, the Great- 
father (again spoke), — 'Hear ! I, having been gratified, will 
confer on thee a fresh boon. O Rakshasa, O sinless one, 
those heads of thine which have been offered as sacrifices and 
which have sunk into the fire, shall again be thine. And, 
O placid one, I shall also confer on thee another boon difficult 
of being obtained, — The form that thou shalt wish to wear, 
shall instantly be thine.' As soon as the Ten-necked Raksha 
iiad spoken thus, the heads that had been offered as sacrifices 
into the fire, rose up again. Having said this unto the 
Ten-necked one, the Great-sire of all creatures addressed 
Bibhishana, saying, — 'O Bibhishana, gratified have I been by 
thee, whose intelligence is established in righteousness. 
Therefore, my child, O righteous-souled one, O thou of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


excellent vows, ask for the boon that thou wouldst have. 1 
Thereat the virtuous Bibhishana spoke with joined hands, — 
'O reverend one, since the spiritual preceptor of all creatures 
himself (is pleased) with me,— I (deem myself) as furnished 
with every perfection, even as the Moon is environed with 
rays. If thou wilt bestow on me a boon with pleasure, then, 

thou of excellent vows, hear of the boon that I would have. 
May my mind remain fast fixed on righteousness, even when 

1 shall happen to fall into high peril ; and may I attain 
Brahma knowledge without any instructions ! And may every 
sense of mine sprung during the observance of particular 
modes of life, be in unison with righteousness, — so that I may 
practise the form of religion (in harmony with any particular 
mode of life !) O exceedingly noble one, this best of boons, 
is even what is sought for by me, for nothing in this world is 
incapable of being attained by those attached to righteous- 
ness.' Then the lord of creatures, being again delighted, 
spoke unto Bibhishana, — 'As thou art virtuous, so all this shall 
come to pass on thy behalf. And inasmuch as in spite of thy 
having been born in the Rftkshasa race, thy thoughts, O 
destroyer of enemies, do not originate in sin, I confer on the 
immortality/ Having said this, he intended to grant boons 
unto Kumbhalcarna. Thereat the celestials in a body 
represented to the lord of creatures with joined hands, — 'On 
Kumbhakarna thou shouldst. confer no boons, since thou 
knowest in what manner doth this wicked-minded one frighten 
people. And, O Brahman, seven Apsar&s in Nandana, ten 
attendants of Mahendra, as well as sages and human beings, 
have been devoured by this one. Considering what this RSkshasa 
did when he had not obtained any boon whatever, if he obtain 
one now 4 he shall eat up the three worlds. Do thou then, 
O lord having immeasurable prowess, pretending to give him a 
boon, give stupifaction (instead). Thereby the welfare of people 
would be secured, and the honor of this one too shall be main- 
tained/ Thus addressed by the celestials, BrahmS, the Lotus- 

Digitized by VjiOOQlC 


sprung one, pondered. The goddess, Saraswati, who was by his 
side was also agitated with anxiety. And remaining by him, 
Saraswati with joined hands observed, — *0 god, I have come 
here. What work shall I accomplish V And the lord of 
creatures, on having her, spake unto Saraswati, — *0 Vani !* 
be thou the goddess of speech of this foremost of Rakshasas,t 
favorable unto the deities. Having said, — 'So be it/ she 
entered (within Kumbhakarna's throat) ; and Prajapati 
said, — *0 Kumbhakarna, O mighty -armed one, do thou ask 
for the boon that thou wouldst have. Hearing those words, 
Kumbhakarna said, — 'O god of gods, my wish is that I may 
sleep for a good many years/ Thereupon, saying, — 'So be it,' 
Brahma along with the celestials went away ; and the goddess, 
Saraswati, also again left the Rakshasa. And on Brahma 
accompanied by the deities going to the celestial regions, he 
was renounced by Saraswati, and then he regained his 
consciousness. And then the wicked-minded Kumbhakarna 
sorrowfully thought, — 'What is this speech that has to-day 
come out from my lips ? Meseems I had then been stupified 
by the deities that had come.' Having thus obtained the 
boons,the brothers endowed with flaming energy, going to the 
Sleshmataka wood, began to dwell there peacefully/' 

• Lit. word, a designation of Saraswati. 

t t. «. preside oyer Kumbhakarna's speech while asking for the boon,— 
and let him, through thy power, ask for s*ch a gift as may turn out profitable 
to the gods.— T. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



JjEARNlNG that these night-rangers had obtained boons, 
Sumali with his followers, casting off fear, rose up from the 
nether regions. And wrought up with exceeding great wrath, 
the counsellors of that Raksha — Maricha and Prahasta and 
Virupaksha and Mahodara — also rose up. And accompanied 
by his counsellors — foremost of Rakshasas — Sumali presenting 
himself before the Ten-necked one and embracing him, ad- 
dressed him,saying, — 'By good fortune it is,0 child,that through 
thee we have had the wish that was in our heart, inasmuch 
as thou hast received the best of boons from him that is the 
foremost in all these three worlds. O mighty-armed one, that 
great fear arising from Vishnu, from which leaving Lanka, 
we had gone to the nethermost abysses, hath been removed. 
Full many a time, brought down by that fear, we, on being 
pursued (by our enemies), forsaking our homes, had gone to 
the nether regions along with all those (related to us). This 
Lanka was our city, inhabited by Rakshasas. (Now) it is 
inhabited by thy brother— the intelligent lord of riches. O 
mighty-armed one, if thou canst through self-control or charity 
or by a sudden display of prowess, repossess thyself of the 
same, a (great) thing shall have been achieved ; and then, 
O child, thou shouldst, without doubt, be the lord of Lanka ; 
and this Rakshasa race, which hath stmk,shaH have been raised 
up by thee. And, O thou endowed with prodigious strength, 
thou shalt be the lord of all/ Then the Ten-necked one 
addressed his maternal grand-father, who was present, saying, 
—'The lord of riches is our superior ; therefore thou ought 
not to speak thus.' On that dignified Rakshasa-chief having 
through moderation thus passed it by, that Raksha, under- 
standing his intent, did not then say anything more. And 
it came to pass that when R&vana had resided there for 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



a time, Prahasta addressed him in a humble speech, — 'O 
Ten-necked one, O long-armed (hero), it doth not behove thee 
to speak thus. Fraternal feeling there is none among heroes. 
Listen to t-iese words of mine ! There were two sisters— 
Aditi and Diti. And mutually attached to each other, those 
(damsels) endowed with surpassing beauty, became the wives 
of that lord of creatures — Kacyapa. And Aditi brought forth 
the gods,— who are the lords of the three worlds. And 
Diti gave birth to the Daityas, — offspring of Kacyapa. O 
thou cognizant of righteousness, formerly this earth, O hero, 
having the ocean for her garment, and furnished with 
mountains, belonged to the Daityas ; and (gradually) they 
grew very powerful. And then this undeteriorating triune 
world was brought under the dominion of the celestials. So 
that thou art not the only one that would act inimically (to 
thy brother) ; but this course had formerly been pursued by 
both the celestials and the Asuras. Therefore do thou act in 
conformity with my word.' Thus exhorted, the Ten-necked 
one, with a delighted heart, reflecting for a moment, said, 
'Very well/ And wrought up with delight, the Ten-necked 
one endowed with prowess the very same day went to the 
forest, accompanied by the night-rangers. And arriving at 
Trikuta, that one skilled in speech— the night-ranger, R&vana 
—sent Prahasta in the capacity of an ambassador : *0 
Prahasta, hie thee ; and tell the foremost of Nairitas— the lord 
of riches — in my words informed with mildness, — This city 
of Lanka, O king, belongs to the high-souled RSkshasas ; but 
thou hast established thyself in her. This, O sinless one, is 
not proper for thee. Therefore, O thou of unrivalled prowess, 
if thotf shouldst render the same (back), I shall be highly 
gratified ; and righteousness also thou wilt maintain. — ' There- 
upon, repairing to LankS, well-protected by i the giver of riches, 
Prahasta communicated these words unto the highly generous 
ruler of riches, — '0 thou of excellent vows, I have been sent 
to thee by thy brother, the Ten-necked one. O long-armed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


one, foremost of those versed in all branches of learning, 
do thou listen to my words, O lord of wealth, — and what the 
Ten-faced one says,— This beautiful city, O thou furnished 
with expansive eyes, was formerly inhabited by Rakshasas of 
dreadful prowess headed by Sum ali ; and for that reason, O 
son of VicravS, he asks thee this. Do thou, my child, grant 
this unto him, who is humbly begging for it.' — Hearing" these 
words from Prahasta, the god Vaicravana, best of those 
skilled in speech, answered the former, saying, — 'My father 
had given this unto me, when it had been emptied of night- 
rangers ; and, O Raksha, I have inhabited this place, 
furnished with charity, honor, and other virtues. Go and tell 
the Ten-necked one, as this city and this kingdom are mine, 
so they are thine, O mighty-armed one. Do thou enjoy this 
kingdom without a foe. May my kingdom and wealth never 
undergo division when thou art present !' Having said this, 
the lord of riches saught the side of his sire, — and, paying 
him reverence, he communicated Ravana's wish unto -him : 
'My father, this Ten-necked one had sent a messenger to' me, 
saying, — Give (back) the city of Lanka, which had before 
been inhabited by hosts of Rakshas. — Now, O thou of 
excellent vows, do thou tell me what I should do. 1 Thus 
accosted, that foremost of ascetics, the Brahmarshi — Vicrava 
— spoke unto the lord of riches (standing) with joined hands, 
— 'O son, listen to my words. The mighty-armed Ten-necked 
one had (once) spoken in^my presence (to that effect). There- 
at I greatly rebuked that wicked-minded one ; and I said 
again and again in anger, — Thou disregardest (thy religion 
and honor). Do thou listen to my words fraught with religion 
and profit. Of a wicked heart, thou, with thy understanding 
spoilt in consequence of the granting of the boon, canst 
not distinguish between those deserving honor and those not ; 
and, further, through my curse, thou hast come by a fierce 
nature;. Therefore, O mighty-armed one, go to the mountain,. 
Kailaca. Do thou, along with thy retainers, for the purpose 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

159* -TllMAYANA. 

of dwelling there, take up thy quarters (there). There floweth 
the Mandakini — best of streams, with her water covered with 
golden lotuses resembling suns, as also with lilies and blue 
lotuses and various other fragrant flowers. And coming 
there frequently, celestials with Gandharbas and Apsaras and 
serpents and Kinnaras, ever sport there, O.lord of riches, 
thou ought not to enter into hostilities with that Raksha. 
Thou knowest how he hath obtained a great boon/ Thus 
addressed, Vicravana, for the sake of his father's dignity, with 
his wives and sons, with his counsellors and his vehicles 
and wealth went (to Kailaca). And Prahasta, going (back), 
joyfully spoke unto the high-souled Ten-necked one, (seated) 
with his counsellors and his younger brothers, — The city 
of Lanka is (now) empty. Renouncing her, the bestower of 
riches hath gone out of her. (Now) entering into her, along 
with us, do thou there maintain thine own religion. ' Thus 
addressed by Prahasta, the redoubtable Ten-necked one 
entered the city of Lanka with his brothers and forces and 
followers. And then even as the lord of the celestials 
ascends heaven, that foe of the immortals ascended 
Lanka well- divided by highways, — which had been for- 
saken by the lord of wealth. And having been installed, 
that night-ranger — the Ten-faced one — dwelt in that city ; and 
that city teemed with night-rangers resembling dark clouds. 
And the lord of riches, for the sake of his father's dignity, 
dwelt in a palace situated on the hill bright as moon-light, 
graced with ornamented superb piles ; even as Purandara 
dwells in Amaravati." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

VTT ARaKANDAM, i 5 . y3 


X HE lord of Rakshasas was installed along with his 
brothers. And then he thought of the giving away in 
marriage of his RAkshasi sister. Then that Rakshasa 
bestowed his sister, the FUkshasi SurpanakhS, on that lord of 
the Danavas and king of the Kilakas — Vidyujjibha. And 
having given her away, the Raksha was wandering about for 
the purpose of hunting, when, O R*ma, he happened to sec 
Diti's son, named Maya. And seeing him accompanied by 
his daughter, that night-ranger — the Ten-necked one — asked 
him, saying, — ' Who art thou that ( wanderest ) alone in 
this forest devoid of men as well as deer ? And art thou 
accompanied by this one having the eyes of a young deer ?' 
Thereat Maya, O Rama, answered that night-ranger, when 
he had asked this, — 'Listen. I shall tell thee all about this. 
Thou mayst ere this have heard of an Apsar* named Hem9. 
She like unto the Paulomi of Satakratu was bestowed on mc 
by the gods. And I passed a thousand years, being devoted 
to her. Thirteen years have passed away since she had gone 
on a business of the celestials, as also the fourteenth year. 
Then I through my extraordinary skill constructed a golden 
palace, adorned with diamonds and Iapises. There I dwelt, 
aggrieved and sorrowful on account of her separation. From 
thence, taking my daughter, I have come to this wood. This, 
() king, is my daughter, grown in her womb. I have come 
hither with her, seeking for her husband. Verily being father 
to a daughter is misery to every one that seeketh one's honour. 
A daughter, forsooth, stayeth, ever placing the two lines* 

9 The lines, namely, of her father and mother. The line of a mother at 
distinct from thai of a father would be impossible under the present economy 
of Hindu society inasmuch as, as soon as a girl is married, she by that 
ceremony leaves her father's line and becomes incorporated with that of her 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1594 RAM AY AN A, 

in uncertainty. And on this wife of mine I have also begat 
two sons ; — the first is MiySvi and the next Dundubhi. Thus 
have I truly related everything unto thee that hadst asked for it. 
But, my child, how can I know thee now ? Who art thou ?' 
Thus addressed, the Raksha humbly said, — 'Ten-necked by 
name, I am the son of the ascetic, Paulastya, who was born 
as the third son of BrahmS.' Thus accosted, O Rlma, by that 
lord of R&kshasas, that DSnava and foremost of DSnavas, 
Maya, learning that he was the son of the Maharshi,Paulastya, 
there desired in his heart to give away his daughter to him. 
And taking her hand with his own, Maya — lord of Daityas — 
laughing, said unto that lord of the RSkshasas, — 'This 
daughter of mine, O king, borne by the ApsarS, Hem*, this 
my daughter named Mandodari do thou accept as thy wife.' 
'Weir thereupon the Ten-necked answered him, O R&ma« 
And lighting a fire, he took her hand. Maya, O R&ma, knew 
the curse of the sage touching him.* Knowing this, he gave 
away his daughter, having regard to the race of R&vana's 
paternal grand-father ; and he also conferred on him an 
exceedingly wonderful dart acquired through the most rigid 
austerities, — by which he wounded Lakshmana. Having thus 
wedded, that master — Lanka's lord — going (back) to that city, 
married his brothers. And R&vana married the grand-daughter 
of Virochana (on the maternal side) named Vajrajw2l&, to 
Kumbhakarna. — And Bibhishana obtained for his wife the 
righteous (damsel) named Sarami— daughter unto the high- 
souled —Sailusha— sovereign of the Gandharvas. (Saram&) 
was born on the shores of the lake, MSnasa. And while the 
lake, M&nasa, was swollen with water on the arrival of the 
rains, her mother, hearing her cries, affectionately said,— 
Saromivarddhata — 'O lake, do not swell/ and from this 
circumstance, her name became SaramSL Having thus 

husband. But this seems to have been otherwise in ancient times. This opens 
up an interesting social problem for the research of orientalists.— T. 
* Respecting his birth. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

VTTa RAKA NDA M. 1595 

wedded, those RSkshasas, taking each his wife, set about 
sporting there, like unto Gandharvas sporting in Nandana. 
And then was born Mandodari's son — Meghantda. Him ye 
call Indrajit. As soon as he was born, Rtvana's son, formerly 
crying, emitted a tremendous roar resembling the rumbling 
of clouds. And, O RSghava, Lank* was petrified at his 
voice ; and (accordingly) his sire himself kept his name, 
Meghantda. And, O Rama, remaining hidden like a fire by 
fuel, R&vana's son, rejoicing (the bosoms of) his father and 
mother, grew up in R&vana's elegant inner apartments.' 



L ND once on a time it came to pass that, despatched by 
the lord of creatures, Sleep in her (native) form powerfully 
overpowered Kumbhakarna. And then Knmbhakarna spoke 
unto his brother, who was seated,— 'O king, Sleep obstructs 
me. Do thou, therefore, have my mansion made. 9 And, 
thereupon, employed by the king, architects resembling 
Vi^wikarmt constructed an edifice beautiful to behold, 
measuring the smooth space of a Yojana diagonally and two in 
area ; graceful to the view,and having no obstruction (to hide its 
beauty). And the R&kshasa caused a splendid and delightful 
pile to be built, adorned all round with pillars decked with 
gold and crystal,— -having stairs composed of lapises,furnished 
with networks of small bells, set with ivory gateways, and 
containing daises dight with diamonds and crystal,— elegant 
throughout, and enduring,— like unto a goodly cave of 
Maru. And there, overcome with slumber, the wondrous 
strong Kumbhakarna, lying down for many thousand years, 
did not wake up. And while Kumbhakarna was overpowered 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1596 RAM AY AN A. 

by sleep, Dacanana* without let began to destroy Devarshls, 
Yakshas and Gandharbas, — and going to graceful gardens, 
Nandana, etc, he devastated them (ruthlessly). And that 
Rakshasa spread destruction, even as an elephant sporting 
agitates a river, as the wind bringeth down trees, or as the 
thunder-bolt riveth mountain-peaks. Hearing of the doings 
of Dacagriva,t and remembering his conduct chiming in 
with his race, the righteous lord of riches — Vaicravana — 
showing his fraternal affection, despatched a messenger to 
Lanka, seeking the welfare of Dacagriva. And going to the 
city of Lanka, he presented himself before Bibhishana. And 
having received him with honor, he asked him as to the cause 
of his visit. And having enquired after the welfare of the king 
as well as his kindred, Bibhishana, showed him unto DacSnana 
seated in his court. And seeing the king there flaming in 
his own energy, he (the messenger), saluting him (Ravana) 
with the word — Jaya% — stood silent. And the envoy address- 
ed Dacagriva seated on a superb couch, graced with a costly 
coverlet, — r O king, I shall tell thee all that thy brother hath 
said, worthy of both the character and race of your father and 
mother, — Enough of wrong-doing. Now thou shouldst mend 
thy ways. If thou canst, stay in righteousness. I have seen 
Nandana ravaged ; and I have heard of the sages slain, and 
O king, of the preparations the deities are making against 
thee. I have been utterly disregarded by thee ; but even if a 
boy should transgress, he should for all that be protected by 
his friends. Self-restrained and controlling my senses, I, 
adopting a terrific vow, had gone to the breast of the HimavSn 
for practising righteousness. There I saw that lord of the gods 
in company with Uma. There I happened to cast my left 

* Henceforth we shall use this significant surname of Ravana, meaning 

f Ten-necked. 

% Jaya may mean (1) victory and (2) all the deities of the Hindu 
pantheon. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


eye on the goddess, for knowing, O mighty king, who she 
was, — and not for any other reason. RudrSni was staying 
then, wearing a surpassing form. Thereupon through the 
divine energy of the goddess my left eye was burnt and 
seemed to be covered with dust, and its lustre became tawny. 
Then I, going to another spacious peak of the mountain, 
became engaged in silently observing a mighty vow. On 
my term of restraint having been complete, that lord of the 
gods — Mahe£wara — with a gratified heart addressed me, 
saying, — O righteous one, O thou of fair vows, I am weH- 
pleased with this asceticism of thine. I also had observed 
this vow ; and thou also, O lord of riches, hast done the same. 
A third person there is none that practiseth such a vow. 
This vow is hard to perform, and formerly it was I that 
introduced it. Therefore, O mild one, O lord of riches, do 
thou contract friendship with me. And thou hast conquered 
me by thy penances. Therefore, O sinless one, be thou my 
friend. And this thy left eye hath been burnt through the 
energy of the goddess, and hath turned tawny in consequence 
of having seen the grace of the goddess ; so thy name shall 
ever be Ekikshipingali. — Then at Sankara's command I have 
obtained the privilege of companionship (with him). Having 
come here I have heard of thy evil designs. Do thou then 
desist from this impious course, tending, to sully thy line. 
The celestials along with the sages are pondering over the 
means of compassing thy death. — ' Thus addressed, the Ten- 
necked one, with his eyes reddened in wrath, rubbing his 
hands and knashing his teeth, said,— 'O messenger, I have 
leamt what thou hast uttered. Neither thou nor this brother 
of mine by whom thou hast been despatched, (shall live) ; 
nor doth the keeper of riches say what is for my good. And 
the fool makes me hear the circumstance of his having made 
friends with Mahefwara. I shall never forgive what thou 
hast said. Up to this I had borne him, considering that he, 
being my elder brother and as such my superior should not 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


be slain by me. But now hearing his (utterances), even this 
is my resolve. Depending upon the might of my arms, I 
shall conquer the three worlds. On his account solely I 
shall on the instant despatch the four Lokapllas to the abode 
of Death/ Having said this, Lanka's lord killed the emissary 
with his sword and made him over to the wicked RSkshasas 
for being eaten. Then, having performed Swastyayana,* 
RSvana, ascending his car, went to where the lord of riches 
was, bent on conquering the three worlds. ,, 



Ct 4 

JCX.CCOMPANIED by his six counsellors — Mahodara and 

Prahasta, Maricha, Suka and Sarana, and the heroic 
Dhumr&ksha — eager for encounter — the graceful RSvana, 
elated with his strength sallied out, as if consuming all 
creatures with his wrath. And leaving behind cities and 
streams and hills and woods and groves, he in a moment 
came to the mountain — Kail§9a. And hearing that wicked- 
minded lord of Rakshasas, breathing high spirits, had arrived 
at the mount in company with his counsellors, the Yakshas 
could not stay before that Raksha, — and knowing 'This one 
is the king's brother/ — went to where the lord of riches was. 
Going to him they in full related all about the doings of his 
brother. And on being permitted by the bestower of 
treasures, they went out for battle. And then, like unto the 
agitation of the ocean, there took place a mighty ferment of 
the forces of the Nairita king, as if making the piountain 

* A religious ceremony performed for propitiating any deity or malign 
star, and so warding off an impending disaster, or bringing luck to any under- 
taking. This has obtained to this day in Hindu society. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


tremble. And then there took place an encounter between 

the Yakshas and the Rakshasas ; and therein the councillors 

of the R&kshasa were smitten fiercely. And finding his forces 

in that plight, Dafagriva set up full many a cheerful shout 

and in wrath began to speak. Of the councillors of the 

RAkshasa-chief, each coped with a thousand Yakshas. And \ 

then struck with maces and clubs and swords and darts and 

tomaras, the Ten-necked one dived into (that deep) of a 

host. And rendered inert and sore assailed, Da^nana was 

deprived of his movements with vollies of weapons remembl- 

ing torrents of rain. And albeit drenched with blood 

streaming down in hundreds of torrents, he like a mountain 

flooded with a downpour, being wounded with the weapons 

of the Yakshas,— doth not betray any smart. And that high- 

souled one, raising up his mace resembling the rod itself of 

Time, entered into that army, despatching Yakshas to the 

abode of Yama. And as a flaming fire burneth up an 

extensive sward of grass stocked with dry fire-wood, he 

began to consume that Yaksha army. And as the wind 

scattereth clouds, the small remnant of Yaksha army was 

scattered by the redoubtable councillors (of Rtvana) — 

Mahodara, Suka, etc. And some were wounded, and (some) 

broken down, and (some) measured their lengths on the 

ground in the encounter, and other Yakshas deprived of 

their arms in the field, being fatigued, sank down, embracing 

each other, even as banks drop down, on being worn away by 

water. And no room was left (in the sky) in consequence of 

its being thronged by hosts of sages ; and warriors, wounded 

and rushing for conflict, and (finally) ascending heaven.* 

And finding the foremost Yakshas endowed with great 

strength give way,the mighty-armed lord of riches despatched 

(other) Yakshas. In the meantime, O Rftma, a Yaksha named 

9 The idea of the author is : 'The welkin was thronged with sages as 
well as warriors, who • we Hod the ranks of the sages stationed in the sky, by : 
ascending heaven after having fallen in fight." — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ifoo A AM Ay ANA. 

Sanyodhakantaka, accompanied by an extensive force and a 
large number of vehicles,— on being despatched, rushed (on 
the foe). And wounded in the conflict (by Sanyodhakantaka) 
with his discus, as if by Vishnu hismself, M richa toppled 
down to the ground from the mountain, like unto a planet 
whose merit hath waned, And in a moment regaining his 
consciousness and resting (for a while), that night-ranger 
fought with the Yaksha ; and thereat, on being defeated, he* 
fled. Then (Ravana) entered within the gate way (of the 
palace), garnished with gold, and decked with lapises and 
silver, And thereat, O king, the warder named Suryyabhanu 
prevented the night-ranger — Dacagriva — as he was entering 
And albeit prevented, the night-ranger entered in. And 
when, O Rama, that Rakshasa was prevented, he did not stay 
And then struck by that Yaksha with the gate- way uprooted, 
he, discharging blood in streams, looked like a hill with 
minerals running on it. And hit with that gate-way resembl- 
ing a mountain-summit in splendour, that hero did not sustain 
any injury, on account of the boon he had received from the 
Self-sprung. And on being struck by the same gate-way, 
the Yaksha ceased to be seen, his body having then been 
consumed to ashes. And witnessing the prowess of the 
Raksha, all began to flee ; and then they afflicted with affright, 
fatigued, and with pale faces, entered into rivers and caves, 
leaving their arms behind." 

• The Yaksha, that i». 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




jeeing the foremost of the Yakshas by thousands 
undergoing trepidation, the lord of riches spoke unto a mighty 
Yaksha — Manichara, — 'O foremost of Yakshas, slay the wicked 
Ravana, set on sin ; and do thou (thus) become the refuge of 
those heroic Yakshas, who are carrying on the conflict/ 
Thus addressed, the mighty-armed and invincible M&nibhadra, 
surrounded by four thousand Yakshas began the fight, And 
attacking the Rakshasas with maces and clubs and bearded 
darts, and with darts tomoras and bludgeons, the Yakshas 
rushed at (their adversaries). And fast safely whirling about 
like hawks, they fought fiercely. And (some) said, 'Well, give 
me battle/ and (others), 'I don't want/ and (others, again), 
'Let me have (fight)'. And then the celestials and the 
Gandharvas and the sages studying the Vedas, beholding the 
great encounter, were filled with mighty amazement. And a 
thousand of the Yakshas were slain by Prahasta in the 
conflict ; and another thousand of capable warriors were slain by 
Mahodara. And O king, in the twinkling of an eye Maricha, 
waxing wroth and eagar for encounter brought down two 
thousand (of enemy's soldiers). Where is the candid-coursing 
fight of the Yakshas and where the fight of the Rakshas by 
help of the power of illusion; and therefore in that battle 
the advantage was on the side of the Rakshasas. And Dhumra- 
cksha, confronting Manibhadra in the mighty conflict hit him 
at the chest with a bludgeon ; but he did not move thereat. 
An™ then Manibhadra dealt the Rakshasa a blow with his mace ; 
and thereat Dhumracksha smit at the head fell down- senseless 
(on the ground). And seeing Dhumrackhsa wounded and 
down, bathed in blood, the Ten-necked one rushed at Mani- 
bhadra in the encounter. And then that foremost of Yakshas 
hit Da^anana with three darts as he was rushing in wrath. 
Ajid on being thus hit, (Ravana) struck at Manibhadra's 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i6o2 RAM AY AN A. 

head ; and at that stroke his crown was depressed at one 
side. And from that day forth that Yaksha remained with 
his head hollow on one side. And on the high-souled Mani- 
bhadra having been baffled, a great uproar, O king, rose in 
that mountain. And then at a distance, the lord of riches, 
mace in hand, accompanied by Sukra and Praushthapada 
and Padma and Sanka saw (Ravana) in the field. And 
seeing his brother in the encounter with his glory obscured 
through the curse (he had ere this come by), the intelligent 
(lord of Yakshas) spoke in words worthy of the line of his 
grand-father, — ( As, O wicked-minded one, thou desistest 
not, albeit forbidden by me, thou shalt, afterwards attain- 
ing the fruit of this, and repairing to hell, know (the 
fate that followeth thee). That perverse one, that through 
ignorance having drunk poison, neglects to adopt proper 
measures, knoweth the consequence of his act ultimately. 
The gods have set their face against thee on account of 
a certain misdeed of thine ; and having for this, been 
reduced to this condition, thou dost not understand things. 
He that dishonoreth his father and mother* and spiritual 
preceptor, reapeth the fruit of his act on coming under the 
sway of the sovereign of the dead. Having regard that 
this body is uncertain, that foolish person, that doth not 
acquire asceticism, dying goeth the way that he deserveth. 
The mind of a perverse man doth not willingly incline 
towards good ; and he reapeth as he soweth. In this 
world people, making their own good fortune and beauty, 
strength, sons, wealth and valor, gain these by virtue of 
their pious acts. Being given to such iniquitous Vets, 
thou wilt go to hell ; and thy designs being such, I w r ill not 
hold parley with thee. Honest people should act carefully 
in connection with the wicked/ — Thus reprimanded by him, 
his (Ravana's) councillors, headed by Maricha, on being 
struck, took to their heels. Then Dacagriva on being 
* Unless he serveth his parents, his heart doth not incline to piety. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


struck in the head with the mace by the lord of Yakshas, 
did not move from his place. And then, O Rama, the Yaksha 
and Rakshasa, smiting each other in mighty encounter, 
did not get bewildered or experience fatigue. And then 
the bestower of riches discharged a fiery weapon at him ; 
and thereat the lord of Rakshasas resisted it with a Varuna 
weapon. And then the Rakshasa king entered upon 
Rakshasi-illusion ; and began to assume a thousand 
shapes for compassing the destruction (of his adversary). 
And the Ten-necked one (successively) assumed the shapes 
of a tiger, a boar, a cloud, a hill, the ocean, a tree, a 
Yaksha and a Daitya. Thus he wore full many forms and 
he was not visible in his native shape. And then, O Rama, 
seizing a mighty weapon the Ten-necked one, whirling 
the same, brought that redoubtable mace down on the head 
of the bestower of riches. Thus smitten by him, the 
lord of wealth, baffled, toppled down to the earth covered 
with blood like an agoka whose roots have been hewn 
away. Thereat Padma and other Nidhi deities, sur- 
rounding the granter of wealth,, raised him up and brought 
him to the Nandana wood. Conquering the bestower of 
wealth, the lord of Rakshasas, with a delighted heart, posses- 
sed himself of his Pushpaka, the car, as a sign of victory ; 
furnished with golden pillars, gateways set with lapises, 
covered with networks of pearls, having trees yielding 
the fruits of all seasons, endowed with the celerity of thought, 
ranging everywhere at will, wearing forms at pleasure, 
capable of coursing in the sky, with golden and jewelled 
staffs, and daises of polished gold, — the vehicle of the gods — 
undeteriorating, bringing delight to the mind and sight ; 
wonderous exceedingly : painted with images designed to 
fill the mind with reverence, — constructed by Brahma, 
containing all objects of desire, charming and nonpariel 
not cold and not yet hot, granting gratification in every 
season, and graceful to the view. And ascendiug that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


i*04 RAM AY AN A. 

(car) coursing at will, won by his prowess, that utterly 
wicked one, out of swelling insolence, deemed himself master 
of the three worlds. And having vanquished the deity 
Vaicravana, he descended from KailSca. And having by 
his energy obtained the victory, the powerful night-ranger 
wearing a bright diadem and necklace, and seated on that 
puperb car, — appeared radiant in his court like Fire himself," 


\J Rama, having, vanquished his brother, the lord of 
riches, the king of Rakshasas went to the great wood of 
reeds, where Mahasena was born. And the Ten-necked 
one saw the great golden wood of reeds. Furnished with 
networks of solar rays, and appearing like- a second Sun, 
and ascending the mountain, he was surveying the heart 
of the forest, when, O Rama, Pushpaka was (suddenly) de- 
prived of its motion. And the lord of Rakshasas, could 
not comprehend how the car which had been so made as to 
course in accordance with the wish of the rider, could 
have its course impeded ; and thereat he in company with 
his councillors thought, Wherefore doth not this Pushpaka 
course at my desire over this mountain ? Whose act is 
this ?' Thereat Maricha — foremost of intelligent ones — said, 
—That Pushpaka doth not course cannot, sire, be without 
cause ; or it may be that in consequence of PushpakiJnot 
having borne any other than the bestower of riches, it 
hath ceased its course not having the lord of wealth for its 
rider. 1 As they were speaking thus, that attendant of 
Bhava, Nandi, terrific, of — yellow black hue, dwarfish, 
L frightful, with his head shaven, having short arms, and stout, 
^Ncpmmg up to them, said ( this). And the lordly Nandi, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


undaunted, addressed the sovereign of the Rakshasas, 
saying : 'Desist thou O Ten-necked one ; Sankara sporteth 
in the mountain ; and (nowj He is incapable of being 
approached by every one — birds, serpents and Yakshas ; 
gods, Gandharvas and Rakshas ?' Hearing Nandi's speech, 
(Ravana), wrought up with wrath, his eyes coppery, and his 
ear-rings shaking, leapt down from Pushpaka. And saying, 'who 
is this Sankara ?' he came down to the base of the mount, and 
beheld there Nandi stationed at the side of that deity, support- 
ing himself on his flaming dart, resembling a second Sankara. 
And seeing that one having the face of a monkey, the Rakshasa, 
deriding him, burst out into laughter, and seemed as if a mass 
of clouds were sending roars. Thereat, growing enraged, the 
reverend Nandi — Sankara/ s other body — spoke unto that Ra- 
ksha — The Ten-necked one — present there ; 'As O Da^anana, 
deriding me for my monkey-form, thou hast indulged in a 
laughter resembling the bursting of thunder, so monkeys endow- 
ed with prowess, and possessed of my form and energy shall 
be born for compassing the destruction, of thy race. And 
armed with teeth and claws, and fierce and furnished with 
the fleetness of thought, and mad for encounter, and bursting 
with vigor, and resembling moving mountains. And being 
born, they shall crush thy high pride and power along 
with thy courtiers and sons. But, O night-ranger, I can 
even now end thee quite ; yet I must not slay thee for thou 
,hast ere this been slain by thine acts/ When that high- 
souled god had spoken thus celestial kettle-drums sounded 
and a blossomy shower rained from the sky. But without 
hefting Nandi's speech, that highly powerful one — Da£an- 
ana — coming to the mountan, said, — ' O Gopati, I will even 
uproot this mountain, for whom Pushpaka was deprived of 
its motion as I was journeying. It must be known by what 
influence Bhavaswara sporteth here king-like. He doth not 
know that an occasion of fear hath presented itself ?' Having 
said this, O Rama, Ravana seizing the mountain with his* 

Digitized by Vj.OOQ IC 

1606 RAM AY AN A. 

arms, lifted it up at once ; and then the mountain trem- 
bled greatly. And in consequence of the mountain shaking 
the attendants of the deity (dwelling in it) also shook. And 
Parvati also trembled and embraced Mahecwara. And then, 
O Rama, Mahadeva — foremost of the deities — even Hara, 
as in sport pressed the mount with his great toe. And thereat 
his arms, resembling blocks of stone felt the shock and 
then there the counciilors of that Raksha were struck with 
amaze. And the Raksha, from wrath and the pain felt in 
his arms, set up a shout that shook the entire triune world. 
And his councillors considered it as the concussion of the 
thunder at the universal disruption. And then the celestials 
with Indra at their head shook on their way; and the sea 
was wild and the mountains shook. And Yakshas and 
Vidyadharas and Siddhas asked, * What is this.' ( Do 
thou propitiate Uma's lord — the blue-throated Mahadeva ; for, 
O Dacanana, save him thy refuge see we none in this matter. 
Bowing thyself down, do thou seek him as thy shelter. 
Then the kind Sankara, on being gratified, will confer on thee 
his favor.' Thus accosted by his councillors, the Ten- 
faced one, bowing down to him having the bull for his 
standard, began to hymn him with various soma hymns ; and 
the Raksha passed away a good thousand years in 
lamentations. And thereat that Lord Mahadeva, pleased, 
set free the hands of Dacanana stationed at the top of the 
mount, and O Rama, addressed him, saying, ( O Dacanana, 
pleased am I with thee on account of thy hymns. And as 
in consequeuce of thy arms having been hurt by the mountain, 
thou hast uttered a terrific yell, which struck horror Vnto 
the three worlds and put them shaking, therefore, O King, 
thy name shall be Ravana. And deities and men and Yakshas 
and others living on earth shall call thee Ravana — terror to 
creatures. So, O Paulastya, which way thou wishest, and 
permitted by me, O Lord of Rakshasas, go thou/ Thus 
accosted by Sambhu, Lanka's lord said of himself. ' If thou 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


art pleased with me, grant me a boon, who ask thee for 
it. I have already obtained a boon, bestowing on me im- 
munity from death at the hands of gods, Gandharvas and 
DSLnavas; and Rlkshasas and Guyhakas and Nagas; and 
others also that are of more than oridinary strength. Man 
count I not O god : They, I deem, are insignificant. I have 
also, O destroyer of Tripura, received a long lease of life 
from Brahma. Now I wish to pass the reira : nder of my 
days in peace: and do thou grant me a weapon.' Thus ad- 
dressed by him, (Rlvana,) Sankara gave him an exceedingly 
effulgent sword, famed as Chandrahasa ; and the master of 
spectres then also granted him peace for the rest of his life. 
And making (the sword) over to him, Sambhu said, — 'Thou 
must not disregard this. If disregarded, it will for certain 
come (back) to me ?' Having thus received his name from 
Mahe^wara, Rlvana, saluting Mahadeva, ascended Push- 
paka. And then, O R&ma, Rjivana, began to go round 
the earth. And opposed at places, by the heroic Kshatriyas en- 
dowed with energy and irrepressible in fight, who refused 
submission, he exterminated them along with their retainers; 
while other men of wisdom, knowing the Raksha to be invin- 
cible, said unto the Rakshasa elated with strength, — " We have 
been conquered?'' 


jt\.nd then, O King, the mighty-armed Rlvana rang- 
ing the earth, came to Himav&n and began to go round it. And 
it came to pass that there he saw a damsel wearing a dark 
deer-skin and matted locks, leading the life of a saint, 
an 1 flaming like a celestial. And seeing the girl observing 
high vows, endowed with beauty, he, with his soul overwhelmed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

,i6o8 RAM AY AN A, 

with lust asked her, laughing. f How is it, O amiable one> 
that thou actest thus contrary to thy youth ? This course 
of life surely doth not befit thy beauty. Thy loveliness, 
O timid one, is peerless, capable of maddening folk with 
desire. It doth not behove thee to lead an ascetic mode of 
life, — this would suit an old person. Whose daughter art 
thou, O gentle lady ? And what is this (vow) that thoa 
practisest ? And O fair faced wrench, who is thy husband ? 
He who hath thee for his wife, is, O timorous one, hath 
religious merit on earth. Tell all about this to me who ask for 
it. For whom dost thou put thyself to trouble ?' Thus ac- 
costed by Ravana, that illustrious girl, having asceticism for 
wealth, having received him hospitably in due form, said, 
'My sire is named Kucodwaja — a Brahmarshi of immeasurable 
energy, son unto Vrihaspati, endowed with grace, and like 
unto Vrihaspati himself in intelligence. And while that high* 
sould one was engaged in the daily study of the Vedas, I 
was born as his word-impregnated daughter, named Vedavati. 
When the gods and the Gandharvas and the Yakshas, Raksha- 
sas, and Pannagas, coming to my sire asked for me, 
O foremost of Rakshasas, my father did not bestow me on 
any one of them. And I shafl tell thee the reason thereof ; 
listen, O long-armed one. My father's intended son-in-law 
was even Vishnu — sovereign of the celestials, and the lord 
of the triune world ; and my father would not bestow me on 
any other. And hearing this, a certain king of the Daityas, 
named Sumbhu — proud, of his prowess was wrought up with 
wrath, and one night as my sire was on bed, that wicked one 
slew him. Thereat my forlorn mother, of exalted righteous- 
ssen embracing my father's body entered into fire. Then 
wishing to realize my father's wish touching Narayana, I have 
fixed my heart even upon him. Having made this promise, I 
have deen carrying on rigid austerities. Thus, O foremost of 
R ikshasas. I have related unto thee everything. Narayana 
si my husband, and not any one else than that best of male 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


beings ; $md desirous of having N&r&yana I have adopted 
severe restraints. I know thee, O king. Go thou, O son 
of Paulastya. By virtue of my asceticism I know all that 
takes place in these three regions.' Thereat descending from 
the front of his car, R&vana, afflicted with the shafts of Kan- 
darpa, again addressed that girl, observant of a mighty vow, 
' O thou of shapely hips, in as much as such is thy intent, 
thou must be very proud*. O thou having the eyes of a 
young antelope, accumulation of religeous merit suits old 
people. Thou, furnished with every perfection, should not 
talk thus. Thou art the paragon in these three worlds. Thy 
youth waxeth away. I am the lord of Lanka, O gentle lady, 
known as Da^agriva* Be thou my wife, and enjoy pleasures 
according to thy desire. Who is he whom thou callest Vishnu ? 
O mild one, neither in prowess, nor in asceticism, nor in en- 
joyment, nor in strength, is he my equal, whom, O damsel, 
thou seekest.' Thus accosted, Vedavati said unto the 
night-ranger 'Do not say so* in respect of Vishnu, lord 
of this triune sphere, bowed down unto by all creatures. 
Save and except thee alone, who, that is intellegent, crieth 
down (NirSLyana), O King of Rlkshasas.' Thus addressed 
there by Vedavati, the night-ranger seized the girl by the 
hair. Thereat Vedavati, wroth, cut off her hair with her 
hand transformed into a sword. And then, flaming 
up in ire and as if consuming the night-ranger, she, pre- 
paring a funeral pyre, hastened to make away with herself. 
"Thou abject, having been outraged by thee I wish not to 
live. Therefore, O Raksha, I will enter into fire in thy very 
pre* nee. And as I have in this world been dishonored 
by thee thou art nefarious. I shall .again be born to com- 
pass thy destruction. It lieth not in a female to slay 
a male intent on sin ; and if I utter a curse, it shall cost my 
asceticism. But if I have done anything, given away any 
thing, offered obtations unto the fire, then I shall be the 
chaste daughter of some virtous person, albeit unborn of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i6io RAM AY AN A. 

any female vessel.' Having delevered herseif thus, she 
entered into the flaming fire ; and thereat a celestial shower 
of blossoms rained all around from heaven. O Lord, this 
is she that hath been born as the daughter of king Janaka, — 
thy wife, O mighty-armed one. Thou arttbe eternal Vishnu. 
The enemy, endowed with the splendour of a hill, formerly 
that had been slain through the wrath (of Vedavati), hath 
now been slain by her, by help of thine superhuman prowess. 
And this one of eminent righteousnesss would again spring 
up on earth like a flame from a field furrowed by the 
plough. This one named Vedavati was born in the Krita age ; 
and in the TreUi age, for compassing the destruction of that 
Raksha, she was born in the Maithila line of the high-souled 


W hen Vedavati had entered into fire, R&vana, as- 
cending Pushpaka, began to range the earth. And 
coming to U^iraviga, RSvana saw a king (named) 
Marutta, sacrificing along with the deities. And a righ- 
teous Brahmarshi named Samvartta, the very brother of 
Vrihashpati, officiated at the sacrifice accompanied by the 
deities. And seeing that Raksha invincible by reason^of 
the boon he had received, the deities, apprehensive of 
being worsted by him, assumed the forms of beasts. And 
Indra became a peacock and the king of righteousness, 
a crow, and the bestower of riches a lizard, and Varuna 
a swan ; and, O slayer of foes, others also became other 
beasts. And then Rivana entered into that sacrifice 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


like an unclean dog. And then coming up to the king, 
Ravana — lord of Rakshasas — said : 'Give me battle, or 
say, — / am defeated.' Whereat king Marutta asked, 
him — Who art thou' ? And Ravana laughing in con- 
tempt said, — 'O king, I am delighted, that lacking curio- 
sity, thou dost not dishonour Ravana, younger brother 
unto the bestower of riches. What other man is there 
in these three regions that knoweth not the might of 
me, who, conquering my brother, has got possession of 
this car.' Thereat Marutta spoke unto Ravana, saying, — 
'Blessed forsooth art thou, by whom thy elder brother 
hath been • vanquished in fight; and a person so praise- 
worthy there is not in the three worlds. An act, that is 
divorced from righteousness and that is reprehended by 
people, can never be praiseworthy. Having committed 
a foul act, plumest thou upon thy having vanquished thy 
brother ? An-d practising what piety hadst thou a-fortune 
received the boon ? I had never before heard the like of 
what thou sayest. But O perverse one, stay now. Living 
thou shalt not back. To-day with my sharpened shafts 
shall I despatch thee to the abode of Yama.' Then taking 
up his bow and arrows, that king of men went out for 
encounter ; but Samavartta stood in the way. And that 
great sage said unto Marutta words informed with affection 
'If thou hear my speech, thou shouldst not fight. If this 
Mahecwara-sacrifice should remain incomplete, it wil 
burn up thy dynasty. Where is the fight of one initiated 
in a^sacrifice ? And where is the passion of one ini- 
tiated in a sacrifice ? And victory is ever uncertain ; 
and the Rikshasa is difficult to vanquish. And 
thereupon, the lord of Earth — Marutta — desisted in con- 
sonance with the instructions of his spiritual preceptor ; and 
composed addressed himself to completing the sacrifice, 
giving up his bow with the arrow set. And thereat consider- 
ing him as defeated, Suka proclaimed this all round; and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ifri2 RAM AY ANA. 

from delight cried aloud, 'Victory unto Ravana !' And then 
devouring the Maharshis that were present at the place of 
sacrifice, Ravana, satiated with their blood, again went to 
the earth. On Ravana having departed, the deities, inhabiting 
the etherial regions — Indra etc. — assuming their proper 
forms, addressed those creatures. And from joy Indra spoke 
unto the purple-plumed peacock, — 'Pleased am I with thee 
thou righteous one. No fear shall spring to thee from 
serpents ; and thy plumage shall be furnished with an hundred 
eyes. And when I shall shower, thou shalt be filled with glee 
as a token of my satisfaction with thee.' Thus did Indra-— 
chief of celestials, confer a boon on the peacock. Formerly, 
O king, the peacock's wings had one unvaried blue. Having 
received the booh, the peacock departed. Then O Rama, 
the king of righteousness said unto the crow, seated in front 
of the sacrificial apartment 'O bird, I am well pleased with 
thee. Listen to my words as I utter them. As I have 
been pleased with thee, thou shalt without doubt, enjoy 
immunity from the various ailments to which the birds 
are subject. And O bird, from my curse fear of death 
shall not approach thee ; and thou shalt exist so long 
as people do not slay thee. And those men residing in my 
dominion, being smitten with hunger, shall be refreshed 
along with thy relations, when thou hast eaten and 
been refreshed.' Then Varuna addressed that lord of birds 
the swan ranging the waters of the GangSL,*—' Listen to my 
words fraught with joy, thy hue shall be charming, mild, 
and like unto the lunar disc ; and it shall be beautiful, Tremb- 
ling the sheen of spotless foam. And approaching my 
person thou shalt ever be beautiful to behold ; and thou 
shalt, as a sign of my gratification, attian unparalleled 
complacence.' Formerly, O Rama, swans had not a hue 
of one unvaried whiteness. Their wings ended in, blue, 
and their breasts wore the spotless hue of tender grass. And 
then Vai^ravana addressed the chameleon as it was stationed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


at the mountain : ' Thy hue shall be gold-gleaming. Pleased 
am I with thee. Thy undeteriorating head shall be ever 
gold-hued. And this golden hue of thine shall proceed from 
my gratification ?' Having thus conferred boons on them at 
that festal place, the celestials, along with the king, ( on 
the sacrifice ) having ended, went to their abode. 


XXaving vanquished Marutta, that lord of R&kshasas— 
the Ten-faced one— eager for encounter, began to range the 
capitals of the foremost monarchs (of the earth). And 
coming to the most powerful crowned heads ( in the world ) 
resembling Mahendra and Varuna, the Rlkshasa king said : 
' Give me battle ; or declare — we have been defeated. This 
I am resolved upon. Otherewise there is no escape for you V 
Thereat those wise kings, possessed of great strength, and ever 
abiding by righteousness, being frightened ( at Rlvana's in* 
timidation ), took counsel of each other. And knowing the 
superior strength of the foe, they said, — 'We have been defeated. 1 
Dushkanta, O child, and Suratha, and G&dhi, and Gaya 
Md king Pururavl — all these kings said : ' We have been 
crefeated.' And then R&vana — sovereign of the R&kshasas— 
presented himself before AyodhyH, governed by Anaranya, like 
Amar&vati ruled by Sakra. And coming to that foremost of men 
—king like unto Purandara himself in prowess, R&vana said,— 
1 Give me battle ; or say I have been defeated. This is 
my mandate/ The lord of Ayodhya, on hearing the words of 
that wicked-minded one, Anaranya, enraged, addressed the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Rakshasa-chief, saying,— 'O king of RSLkshasas, I will give 
thee combat, stay thou. At once prepare for fight, and I also 
shall go and prepare myself/ And when he had heard everything 
( regarding RSvana ), the forces of that foremost of kings 
that had been intended, for conquering (Rlivana), sallied 
forth ready for bringing about the destruction of the Raksha, — 
ten thousand elephants, a niyuta horse, and many thousands 
of cars and infantry, O best of men ; and, that host 
consisting of infantry and cars, marched for encounter, 
covering up the earth. And then, O thou proficient in fight, 
there took place a mighty and wonderful encounter between 
king Anaranya and that lord of RSLkshasas. And that host, of 
the king encountering the forces of Ravana, were extinguished 
like unto clarified butter thrown into the ( sacrificial) fire. And 
having faught valorously for a long time, the remnant of 
the royal forces, suddenly coming in contact with the flaming 
Rakshasa ranks, were destroyed like unto swarms of locusts 
entering into fire. And he saw the mighty army of that power- 
ful monarch destroyed by the (adversary), like unto a hundred 
streams absorbed by an approaching ocean. And then himself 
drawing his bow resembling the bow itself of Sakra, that 
foremost of sovereigns, beside himself with wrath, approached 
Ravana. And brought down by Anaranya, his ( Ravana's ) 
councillors — Maricha, Suka, and Sarana with Prahasta, — took 
to their heels like unto dear. And then that son of the 
Ikshaw&ku race discharged eight hundred arrows at R&vana's 
head. And like unto showers pouring down on the top of 
a mountain, his shafts did not inflict any wound (on RSLvana)^- 
And then the king, smitten on the head with a slap by tne 
enraged king of R&kshasas, dropped down from his car. 
And the king, deprived of his senses, fell down on the earth, 
with his body trembling all over ; as falls in a forest a sila 
scathed with heaven's fire. And thereat the Raksha, laugh- 
ing, spoke unto that IkshwSku, lord of the 'earth, — * What 
is this that thou hast gathered as the fruit of thy encounter 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


With me. O king, there is none in this triune sphere that 
can combat with me. Having hitherto been sunk in lunacy,, 
thou hast not heard of my strength.' As he was speaking 
thus, the king, whose sounds were fast running out said : 
1 What can I do in this matter. Verily time is incapable of 
being controlled. I have been overcome by Time ; thou art 
merely an instrument. What can I do now, when I am going 
to lose my life ? I never turned away . from fight ; I have 
been slain fighting. But, O R&kshasa, I shall tell thee 
something in consequence of the disgrace that the Ikshwfiku 
race has met with (to-day). If I have practised charity, if 
I have offered oblations into fire, if I have carried on pious* 
penances, if I. have governed my people well, then be my- 
words verified I There shall spring in the line of the high- 
souled Ikshw&ku, one named Rlma — son unto Da^aratha, 
who shall deprive thee of thy life.' As he uttered this 
imprecation, the celestial kettle-drums sounded like the 
roaring of clouds ; and blossoms showered down from the sky. 
And then, that best of kings, went to heaven*; and when that 
king had gone to the celestial regions, the R&kshasa ( also ) 


^ a a it — • 

£ij$ the lord of R&kshasas was ranging the earth 
frightening everyone, Nftrada — foremost of ascetics, came to 
that wood mounted on a cloud. And thereupon saluting 
him, the night-ranger Ten-necked one— enquired after his 
welfare as well as the occasion of his visit And that De- 
varshi— the exceedingly energetic NSrada of immeasurable 

Digitized by KjOOQ IC 

i6i6 RAM AY AN A. 

splendour, seated on the back of the cloud, addressed 
Ravana, who was stationed in Pushpaka, saying, — ( lord 
of Rakshasas, O placid one, O son of V^ravS, stay. I am 
well pleased with thy prowess and fame. And even as 
Vishnu had pleased me by destroying the Daityas, thou pleased 
me by harassing the* Gandharvas and serpents. I will tell 
* thee something. If thou wouldst hear what I have to say 
then, O child, listen heedfully as I unfold it. Why, my child, 
dost thou slay these* ; thou art incapable of being slain by 
even the celestials. All these (men) are. subject to death, they 
are verily slain- The world of man is unworthy of being 
afflicted by thee who art incapable of being destroyed by 
Deities, Danavas Daityas, Yakshas, Gandharvas and 
Rakshas. Who should slay creatures, who are ever stupid 
in respect of their welfare, environed by mighty 
dangers, and encompassed by decrepitude and hundreds of 
ailments ? What sensible person can set his heart on 
slaying human beings . who are everywhere beset with", a 
perrennial stream of evils. Do not thou enfeeble those 
beings who are already enfeebled and smitten by .Divinity^ 
with hunger, thirst, old age etc. and who are overwhelmed 
with sorrow, and grief. O mighty-armed one, O lord of 
Rakshasas, behold man, albeit having their sense stupified, 
engaged in the pursuit of various interests, and themselves 
not understanding their own ways ;t some pass their time 
merrily with dancing and playing on musical instru- 
ments while others weep distressfully with tears streaming 
from their eyes down their cheeks. And down fallen on 
account of their attachment for their mothers and fatherd^ind 
sons, and of their desires touching their wives and friends 
they set small store by labours having the hereafter as their 

* i. e. human beings. 

•j- Q a ti — according to the commentator, means the time of employment 
and suffering. — I think the ordinary meaning answers, and give it according- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


object. What then is the usie of afflicting a race that is 
brought down ever by its own infatuation. O placid one, 
this world is verily conquered by thee. These for certain 
will have to repair to the abode of Varna. Therefore, O 
Paulastya, O captor of hostile capitals, do thou put down 
Yama. On him being conquered, all will doubtless be Con- 
quered by thee.' Thus addressed Lanka's lord, flaming in 
native energy, addressed N&rada, laughing and saluting him, 
'O thou that delightest in the sport of gods and Gandharvas, 
and that takest pleasure in warfare, I am ready to go to the 
nethermost regions for the purpose of conquest. And con- 
quering the three worlds, and bringing under subjection ser- 
pents and celestials I shall for ambrosia churn the nether 
regions.' Then the reverend sage Narada spoke Unto the 
Ten-necked one, — '.Who save thee can forsooth go on that 
journey ? Verily, O irrepressible one, O destroyer of foes, 
the way leading to the city of the lord of the dead 
is difficult of access.' Thereat laughing, the Ten-faced 
one said to the saint resembling a mass of white clouds, 
'This is done. Therefore,* O great Brahman, intent upon 
slaying the Vaiva^wata's son, I will go by this way which 
leadeth to the king — the offspring of the sun. And, O 
master, from wrath I have vowed that I will, eager for en- 
counter, O reverend one, conquer the four Lokap&las. Then 
here go I to the city of the lord of the Pitris ; and I am 
determined to compass the death of him that visiteth creatures 
with smart.' Having delivered himself thus and saluted the 
sage, he, entering the southern way with his councillors, 
profbeded along. And the exceedingly energetic NSrada — 
best of Brahmans — resembling a smokeless fire, remaining rapt 
for a while, began to reflect ; — 'How can (R&vana) conquer 
Time who, when its life waneth, righteously visiteth with 
affliction the time, sphere with Indra, fraught with mobile 

* 1. e As thou hast commanded me. 

Digiti^d by VjOOQIC 

i6i8 RAM AY AN A. 

and immobile. How can this lord of Rakshasas, of himself, 
go to him who, resembling another fire, beareth to the 
gifts and acts (of persons), — that high-souled one of whom 
attaining consciousness, people put forth their activity ; and 
afflicted with the fear of whom these three worlds fall away ? 
How can (Ravana) subdue him who ordaineth things both 
great and small, whc meteth rewards and punishments for 
good and bad acts, and who himself hath conquered the three 
worlds ? Resorting* to what other means shall Ravana secure 
(victory) ? I am curious about it : To Yama's abode shall I 
go for witnessing the encounter between Yama and the 


" JJLAVING reflected thus, that foremost of Vipras endowed 
with fleet vigor, bent his steps towards the abode of Yama, 
for the purpose of relating to him all that had taken place. 
And there (he) saw that god — Yama — sitting in front of fire 
and offering into it the good and evil fruits of their actions.f 
And seeing the Maharshi NSrada arrive there, Yama 
offering him arghya according to the ordinance, addr#sed 
him saying, when he was seated at his ease : 'O Devarshi, 

* Explains the commentator : ' Time hath every thing under its controL 
Like the all-enclosing space, time pervades all that is. This being so, resort, 
ing what transcending Time, shall Ravana obtain victory over it." 

f Ordaining happiness and misery to the live* of people according to 
their acts.' — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


is it well with thee ? And doth virtue deteriorate.'* And, 
why, thou honored of deities, and Gandharvas, dost thou 
come ?' Thereat the reverened sage, NSLrada, said ; Hearken. 
I shall tell (thee) ; and (after hearing me out) do thou 
what is fit. O king of the Pitris, here cometh the night- 
ranger named ten-necked, for bringing thee under his sway 
— thee who art incapable of being conquered. And, 
O master, for . this reason it is that I have come hither 
hastily, — doubtful what shall befall thee who hast the rod 
for thy weapon. In the meanwhile they saw the Raksha's 
car approach from afar, flaming and like unto the ray- 
furnished (one) risen. And dispelling the gloom of that 
region with the effulgence of Pushpaka, that exceedingly 
powerful (R&kshasa) came forward. And the mighty-armed 
ten-necked one all arqund saw creatures reaping the conse- 
quences of their fair and foul acts. And there he saw Yama's 
soldiery along with Yama's followers, fierce-forms, grim-visaged 
and terrific. And he saw coporeal beings undergoing tor- 
ments and pain, and emitting loud cries and sharp shrieks ; 
preyed on by worms and fell dogs : and uttering words 
capable of striking pain and terror into the heart (of the 
hearer) : and people swimming in the Vaitaraini profusely 
running blood ; and momentarily burning with hot sands ; 
unrighteous wights pierced in a wood of asipatra t (plunged) 
in Raurava, in the river of borate of soda ; and (cut) with 
razor-edges ; asking for drinks ; and afflicted with hunger 
and thirst ; converted into corpses, lean, woe-begone, and 
pallid with hair flowing loosely ; having dust and filth (on their 
bodres), and running about distressfully with dry forms ; — on 

* The original has: "Doth not virtue wane." This in English would imply 
the very reverse what Narada intends to say. He says : 'Doth religion deterio- 
rate V — i.e. 'I hope, religion doth not deteriorate.' This is an idiom and 
natural usage accounts for it, although that usage must in the nature of 
things be based on a subtle ground of reason. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i620 RAM AY AN A. 

the way saw R&vana by hundreds and by thousands. And 
R£vana also saw some in front of houses engaged in merry- 
making with songs and strains of instruments, — as the fruit 
of their pious acts; and (saw) the giver of kine regailing 
themselves with milk ; the dispenser of rice, feeding on the 
same, the bestower of abodes, enjoying mansions, as the 
fruit of their several acts ; and persons living with dam- 
sels decked with gold and gems and jewels ; and other 
pious folks, flaming in their native energy, all these saw 
R&vana lord of Rakshasas. And by his might that mighty 
one delivered those that were being tormented by their 
wicked acts. And on being liberated by that Raksha — the 
ten-necked one, those creatures in a moment began to enjoy 
their release, that had come to them without thought or 
suspense. And on the dead being delivered by the magnani- 
mous R&kshasa, the guards of the dead, getting enraged, 
rushed at the R&kshasa sovereign. And there arose a mighty 
tumult from all sides ; from the heroic warriors of the king of 
righteousness, rushing (all around.) And those heroes by 
hundreds and by thousands assailed (Pushpaka) with pr& fas, 
and bludgeons, and darts and maces, and spears and to mar as. 
And swiftly swarming like bees, they began to break the 
seats, blocks, daises and gateways (of the car.) And in that 
conflict Pushpaka presided over by divine energy, incapable 
of being destroyed by virtue of Brahma power, being broken, 
resumed its former shape. Countless were the soldiers of 
that high-souled one consisting hundreds and thousands of 
heroic warriors, (ever) forward for fight. And according 
to the measure of their might his (RSvana*s) councillors- 
great heroes all, as well as the ten-faced one himself with 
might and main, faught with trees and crags and hundreds 
of blocks of buildings. And those councillors of the lord 
of Rakshasas, assailed with every kind of weapons, with 
their persons bathed in blood, faught fiercely. And O large- 
armed one the exalted councillors of Yama and R&vana sore 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


assailed each other with arms. And leaving the councillors 
alone the highly powerful warriors of Yama rushed against 
Da^&nana* with a shower of spears. And then pierced through 
and through by those weapons, with his person covered with 
blood, the R&kshasa king appeared like a flowering Kin^uka 
in Pushpaka.f And thereat that powerful one, by virtue of 
his mastery over weapons, began to hurl darts and maces, 
prdgas and spears and tomaras and crags and trees. And 
that terrific shower of trees, rocks and arms, alighted on 
the army of Yama (fighting) on the earth. And snapping 
those weapons and resisting (those vollies of) arms, they 
smote at the Rakshasa fighting alone by hundreds and thou- 
sands. And encompassing him even as clouds encompass 
mountain, they rendered (Rlvana) inert by means of 
Bhindip&las and darts. And with his mail torn open, his 
anger raging fiercely, and covered with blood streaming over 
his person, he, forsaking his car, stood upon the ground. 
And then furnished with his bow and holding his shafts, 
(R&vana) regaining his senses in a short time, increased in 
energy and stood in the field like the finisher. And now 
fixing the divine P&£upata on his bow, and saying unto 
them, 'slay! slay V he drew that bow. And enraged, (R&vana) 
resembling Rudra himself, in fight drawing his bow to his 
car, discharged that shaft even as Sankara had discharged at 
TripurSL And the appearance of the shaft was like an ex- 
tinguishing fire in summer with smoke with flames, 
burning up a forest. And garlanded with glory that shaft 

• Ravana. 

t This simile is peculiarly appropriate and beautiful. Pushpaka, the name 
of Ravana's car, means composed of flowers; and this signification shining 
askance, as it were, over the direct sense of the sentence, heightens the 
delight the reader feels on imagining the principal figure. 'Ravana seated in 
Ftuhfaka, covered with blood, looked like a blossoming Kinsuka.' — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1622 RAM AY AN A. 

followed by ghosts,* in that encounter ; rushed on, burning to 
ashes the loose bushes and trees lying in its way. And burnt 
up by its energy, the most of Vaivaswata fell down in the 
field like unto banners of Mahendra. And thereat the 
Rakshasa of terrific prowess along with his councillors began 
to set up tremendous shouts ; as if making the earth tremble. 



EARING his mighty shouts, that lord Vaivaswata knew 
that his adversary had gained the day and that his own 
host had been destroyed. And knowing that his forces had 
been slain, he, with his eyes crimsoned with passion hastily 
spoke unto his charioteer, 'Bring thou my car.' And there- 
at the charioteer brought the noble and mighty car and stood 
(there) and then that exceeding energetic one mounted the 
car. And in front (of his car) stood death, equipped with 
pragas and maces in his hands, who makes nothing 
of this entire triune world ; incapable of deterioration. And 
beside (him) was the rod of Time in its native from — the divine 
instrument of Yama like unto a flaming fire on account of 
its own energy. And then on beholding Time, infuriated, 
tending to strike terror into all creatures, was agitated %he 
triune universe, and trembling over took the denizpns of 
heaven. And the charioteer urged on the steeds posses- 
sed of graceful splendour ; and arrived where the lord of 
Rakshasas was posted. And in a moment those horses 

* The instrument being Siva's, it naturally was followed by ghosts, as his 
attendants. — T. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


like unto thought (in celerity,) and resembling the steeds 
themselves of Hari, took Yama where the warfare had already 
begun. And seeing the frightful car in that aspect with 
Death present in it, the ministers of the R&kshasa monarch 
at once took to their heels. And in consequence of their 
being comparatively inferior in point of strength they were 
deprived of their senses, and afflicted with fear ; and saying, 
'Here we are not equal to fighting* they went their way. 
But seeing that car capable of striking terror into folks, the 
Ten-necked did not experience any agitation, nor did fear 
enter his heart. And approaching Ravana, Yama, enraged, 
discharged spears and tomaras, and began to pierce RSvana's 
marrow. But Ravana, without at all feeling any smart, 
began to shower arrows on Vaivaswata's vehicle, resembling 
a downpour caused by clouds. And again at his spacious 
breast, that Rakshasa who had undergone slender injury, 
could not resist, (Yama's arms) with hundreds of mighty 
darts hurled. And in this way that destroyer of foes — Yama 
fought for seven nights with various arms ; until at length 
his enemy was driven back and deprived of his senses. And 
then, O hero, there took place mighty onset between Yama 
and the Rakshasa both eager for victory and both never 
tiring of fight. And celestials and Gandharvas and 
Siddhas, and the supreme saints, placing Praj&pati at their 
head, presented themselves at the fight. And the en- 
counter that then took place between that foremost of 
of Rakshasas and the lord of the Dead was like the univer- 
sal upheaval. And stretching his bow resembling in splean- 
dour the thunderbolt of Indra, he discharged arrows covering 
up the sky. And he smote Death with four, the (Yama's) 
charioteer with seven, and swiftly struck Yama in the marrow 
with hundreds and thousands of shafts. And then from 
forth Yama's mouth there issued darted flames with his teeth 
mixed with smoke, the fire of his fury. And witnessing 
this wonder in the presence of the deities and Danavas, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1624 RAM AY ANA. 

both Death and Time were fired with wrath and were 
filled with delight. And the Death, growing still more 
wroth, addressed Vaivaswata saying ; — "Let me go. I shall 
slay this sinful R&kshasa. Even this is my native might 
this Rakshasa will be no more. Hiranyakacipu, the 
gracaful Nemuchi, and Shamvara, Nishandi and Dhumketu 
and Virochana's offspring Vali, and the Daitya Shamvu 
that mighty monarchs, Vritra and Bana ; and RVjarshis 
versed in all branches of learnings and Grandharvas, and 
mighty serpents, and sages, and Pannagas and Yakshas, 
and swarms of Apsaras and the Earth herself containing 
vasty oceans and mountains and rivers and trees, at the 
unrolling of a Yuga — all these, O mighty monarch 
have I brought to dissolution. All these and many more 
endowed with strength and incapable of being overcome, 
were at the very sight of me compassed with peril,-^ 
and what is this ranger of the night ? Let me go. O thou 
cognizant of righteousness, — I shall slay this one. There is 
none that, albeit strong, can survive after having been seen 
by me. Verily ^this is not mine strength, — this might per- 
taineth to me by nature. O Time, if seen by me, he won't 
live for a moment' Hearing these words of his, the puissant 
king of righteousness spake there unto death, — 'Do thou stay. 
I myself shall slay him.' Then with his eyes reddened that 
lord, Vaivaswata, wielded with his hand the infallible 
dart of time ; while by him lay the redoubtable noose of 
time and the mace in its native shape resembling fire and the 
thunderbolt. He, who by his very sight draweth away the 
lives of creatures, — what should be said of its touchingQand 
being hurled at people ? And touched by that powerful one, 
that mighty weapon, engist with flames, attained access of 
energy, and seemed to consume the Rakshasa. And in the 
field of battle, every one afflicted with fear, ran away from 
it. And beholding Yama with his rod uplifted, the celestials 
were agitated. And on Yama being desirous of slaying 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Havana, the great-father manifesting himself spake unto 
Yama: 'O Vaivaswata, O mighty-armed one, O thou of 
immeasurable prowess, this certainly must not be; Thou 
shouldst not with thy rod slay the night-ranger ; for, O 
foremost of celestials, I have conferred a boon on him ; 
and thou shouldst not render false the words that I have 
uttered. Verily he, that, whether a god or a human being, 
shall falsify my words, shall render this triune universe 
false. There is no doubt about this. If this terrific weapon* 
capable of affrighting the three spheres, be discharged alike 
at friends and foes, it will destroy creatures. This rod of time, 
of immeasurable might and incapable of being resisted by 
creatures, was created by me as having the power of com- 
passing the death of all beings. Therefore, O mild one> 
thou forosooth shouldst not bring it down on Ravana's head. If 
this alights on any one, he doth not live for a moment. 
Whether on this weapon allighting, the ten-necked does not 
die, or if he does do either way falsehood is the consequence. 
Therefore do thou keep thy uplifted weapon off Lanka's 
lord. If thou have any care for these worlds do thou 
establish my truth. 1 Thus addressed, Yama then ansewred, 
'I rastrain this rod. Thou art our Lord. But as 
I can not slay this one who hath obtained a boon, what 
then shall I do now in the field ? Therefore shall I disappear 
from the sight of this Raksha.' Having said this, even 
there did he vanish with his car and horses. And naving 
vanquished him and distinguished his name, he again ascended 
his Pushpaka and went out of the abode of Yama. And 
witjp a delighted heart Vaivaswata along with the deities 
headed by Brahma — as well as that mighty ascetig-Narada, 
went to the celestial regions." 


Digitized by 


1626 RAM AY AN A. 


JJLAVING vanquished Yama, the foremost of celestials, 
Ravana delighting in warfare, saw his adherents. And seeing 
Ravana, with his person bathed in blood, bettered by the 
weapon discharged at him, they were seized with surprise. 
And hailing him with victory, the councillors headed by 
Maricha, having been encouraged by Ravana, ascended Push- 
paka. And then the Raksha entered the regeon 
of waters — the abode of Daityas and serpents, well protected 
by Varuna. And arriving at Bhogavati — the city governed 
by Vasuki, he brought the serpents under subjection and 
then, delighted, bent his course to the palace — Manimayi. 
There dwelt the "Nivatakavachas, who had obtained boons. 
Those Daityas were possessed of prowess and endowed with 
strength, — carrying various weapons, breathing high spirits and 
invincible in battle. And the Danavas and Rakshasas 
growing enraged fell to raving each other with darts and 
tridents, Kuli£as and axes and fattigas. And as they faught 
one entire year passed away and neither side obtained 
victory or was worsted. And then that way of the triune 
sphere, that God, the undeteriorating Great-father, swiftly 
presented himself on the scene mounted on his excellent 
car. And making the Nivatakavachas desist from battle 
the ancient great- father spake in clear words — 'Even 
the celestials and the Asuras are not able to «^n- 
quish this Ravana in battle ; nor can the Danavas 
backed by the gods can destroy you. Do you therefore 
turn your minds to making friends with the Rakshasa. 
.11 interests are forsooth the common possession of friends.' 
hereat Ravana made friends with the Nivatakavachas 
*HJj£ presence of Fire ; and then rejoiced greatly. And duly 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


honored (by them) Dac&nana passed there a year, without 
any feeling of that place being different from his own home : 
and spent his time agreeably. And having learnt there 
an hundred sorts of illusion, he directed his course to Ras&- 
tala, searching for the city of the lord of waters. And then 
going to the city named Acma ruled by the K&lakayas, 
(Rivana) slew the KSLlakayas endowed with terrific 
striength ; and then with his sword cut off his brother. in-law,* 
the husband of SurpanakhS, the mighty Vidyutjibha possess- 
ed of terrific strength ; as that R&kshasa in the encounter was 
licking (the limbs of RSvana's followers).f Having vanquished 
him, he, in a moment, destroyed four hundred Daityas. And 
then the lord of R&kshasas saw the grand abode of Varuna 
resembling a mass of white clouds, and effulgent like 
unto KailSLca itself ; — and also saw the milk-conserving 
Surabhi stationed there ; from the streams of whose milk 
was produced the ocean named Kshiroda.J And there 
Rivana saw the mother of kine and the foremost of bulls ; 
from whom springeth that maker of night the mild-bea- 
ming-moon ; taking refuge under whom subsist the prime 
saints and those living on froth, the froth§ (of milk) ; and 
wherefrom sprang ambrosia as well as the Swadha of Sw&dha- 
subsisting onesH, even her that goeth with human beings 
under the name of Surabhi, Having gone round this 

• Cyald means a wife's brother, Vidyujjibha was however, the husband of 
his sister.— T. 

W This explanation is the commentator's. 

% Lit, the sea of milk. 

$ A typical instance of the lengths which the self-denial of the Hindu 
sages went is furnished by the case of a certain class of ascetics, who, abstain- 
ing from every other kind of food, lived solely on the fruth of milk, falling 
of! from the udders after the calf had drunk it. This froth-drinking, in 
preference to drinking the milk itself was dictated by a motive cf charity — uz, 
nut to deprive the calf of her legitimate fare. — T 

* The ancestral manes. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1628 RAM AY ANA. 

wonderful (cow), Ravana entered the exceedingly dreadful 
abode of Varuna) guarded by various kinds of forces. And 
then he beheld Varuna's splendid mansion, streaming with 
hundreds of torrents, resembling a mass of autumnal clouds, 
and always wearing a delightful aspect. And killing the 
generals of the forces, after having been resisted by them, 
he addressed the warriors, saying, — 'Do you speedily acquaint 
your king with this " Ravana hath come here seeking 
battle.'* ; Do thou give him fight, or say with joined 
hands. 'I have been defeated by thee, and then thou 
hast no fear whatever V In the meantime the sons and 
grandsons of the high-souled Varuna, as well as those of 
Pushkara issued forth. And they, endowed with every 
virtue, accompanied by their own forces, yoked cars 
furnished with the effulgence of the rising Sun, and coursing 
at the desire of their riders. And then there took place a 
mighty encounter capable of making people's down stand 
on end, between the sons of the lord of waters, and those 
of the intelligent Ravana. And in a short while that entire 
host of Varuna was brought down by the highly powerful 
councillor of that RaLkshasa Dacagriva. And seeing their 
own forces brought to straits in the conflict and driven 
back in the fight with networks of shafts, and down 
on the ground and seefng Ravana in Pushpaka, Varuna* s 
sons swiftly shot into the welkin with their fleet-footing cars. 
And after they had attained a station of equal vantage 
(with Ravana) in the sky,* great was the encounter that then 
took place in the sky, resembling the encounter offlhe 
deities and the Danavas. And turning away Ravana in> 
the conflict by means of shafts resembling fire, they, ex- 
ceedingly rejoiced, emitted various shouts. And then 
Mahodara, eneraged on seeing the king sore pressed, casting 

* Ere this Ravana was fighting on Pushpaka, while Varuna's sons (ou£ht 
on the earth. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


off fear, and wrought up with rage, began to ' go around, 
eager for fight. And smit with his mace by Mahodara, 
Varuna's sons coursing* at will and resembling the wind (in 
velocity), dropped down to- the ground. And- having slain 
those warriors and also those horses of Varuna's Sons 
(Mahodara) seeing them lying down deprived of their cars 
swiftly sent up a tremendous cheer. And destroyed by 
Mahodara, their cars and horses together with their fore- 
most charioteers, lay low on the earth. And then forsak- 
ing their cars, the sons of the high-souled Varuna, stationed 
in the sky, did not experience any pain* by virtue of their 
native power. And having stretched their bows they pierced 
Mahodara, and then, all together they greatly angered 
prevented R&vana. As the clouds, with a thousand torrents 
cleave a mountain, so they, with dreadful shafts, resembling 
thunderbolts and discharged off the bows, pierced him. 
Thereupon the Ten-necked (demon), excited with wrath like 
the fire of dessolution, pierced them to their very vitals 
with highly dreadful arrows. And stationed above, he 
showered on them variegated maces, Valldsf Pdtticas, saktis 
and huge Sataghnis. 

Thereupon with .the arrows the infantry were greatly 
exhausted like unto young elephants six years old, fallen 
In mire. Beholding Varuna's sons thus worn out and over-* 
whelmed the highly powerful R£vana roared in delight 
like unto clouds. Thereupon emitting loud cries the 
Rakshaha, like unto a cloud, with a downpour of diverse 
sha&s, destroyed the offspring of Varuna. Thereupon they 
were all defeated and fell dead on the ground and all their 
followers fled away from the field of battle to their homes* 
R£vana spoke unto them. — "Do ye communicate this to 

* By virtue of their immortal origion. 
\ Aq arrow with a ceresent-shapcd head. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1630 RAM AY AN A. 

Varuna." Whereto his minister Prahasta replied unto 
R5vana saying — "0 great king — Varuna's sons are slain 
and the lord of waters, whom thou art inviting for battle, 
hath gone to tjie region of Brahma, to hear songs. While 
the king is away, what is the use of taking trouble, O hero ? 
And all these heroic sons (of Varuna) have been vanquished." 
Hearing these words and spreading his own name the lord 
of Rakshasas expressing sign of joy, issued out of Varu- 
na's abode. And returning by the way by which he had 
come, the Raksha, stationed in the welkin, proceeded towards 


^ND again journeyed in the city of Acma (the followers of 
Ravana) dreadful in fight. There the Ten-necked demon beheld 
a highly picturesque house — adorned with networks of pearls, 
having gateways crested with Vaidurjas, golden pillars and 
abounding in pavements. And the stairs, of that picturesque 
house resembling the abode of Mahendra, covered with 
girdles, were made of crystal. Beholding that excellent house 
the highly powerful Ravana thought within himself — " Whose 
is this beautiful house, resembling the summit of Meruit Go, 
O Prahasta, and learn quickly whose house is this. " Thus 
ordered, Prahasta entered that excellent house — and finding 
none in one appartment he entered another and thus entering 
seven apartments he at last saw a flame of fire. There was 
a man in that flame, who, when seen, laughed aloud. Hearing 
that dreadful laughter Prahasta's down stood on their end. 
There was another man in that flame, as if in a swoon, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


engarlandcd with golden lotuses, incapable of being looked 
at, like the sun, and resembling the Yama's self. Beholding 
that the night-ranger speedily issued out of the house and 
communicated it unto R&vana. Thereupon, O RSLma, having 
descended from Pushpaka, the Ten-necked demon, black as 
collyrium, entered that house. (Immediately) obstructing the 
door there stood a huge-bodied man, dreadful like Siva — his 
tongue was all flame, his eyes were red, rows of teeth 
beautiful, lips like Bimba, his form was handsome* nose 
dreadful, neck like a shell marked with three lines, jaws 
were spacious, beards thick, bone fleshy, teeth huge and his 
Appearance was all dreadful. And taking up an iron mace 
he stood at the gate. Beholding him, Da£&nana's hairs 
stood on their end — his heart and body trembled. And 
seeing these bad omens, O R£ma, he began to think within 
himself. He thus meditating that man said — 'What art 
thou thinking, O R&kshasa ? Tell me all in confidence. I 
shall confer upon thee the hospitality of fighting, O hero, 
O night-ranger.' Having said this he again spoke unto 
Rlvana, saying — ' Dost thou wish to enter into conflict with 
Bali, or what else is thy intention ?' RSvana was so over- 
whelmed that his hairs stood on their end ; but resorting to 
calmness he said — ' O thou foremost of those skilled in 
speech, who residest in this house ? I shall fight with him ; 
r ,speak out what thou wishest.' He again said (to R&vana) — 
"The lord of Dinavas lives here — he is highly generous, 
heroic, and hath truth for his prowess. He is gifted with 
many qualities, resplendent like unto Yama with mace 
in 0»is hand or the newly risen sun and incapable 
of being defeated in conflict, impetuous, invincible, victorious, 
powerful, a veritable ocean of accomplishments, sweet-speech- 
ed, supporter of the dependants, fond of preceptor and 
Brahmans, always waiting for opportune hours, gifted with 
high powers, truthful, of a handsome person, skilful, gifted 
with all accomplishments, heroic and engaged in the study 



1632 RAM AY AN A. 

of the Ved&s. He sometimes walks on foot and moves about 
like the wind — he shines like fire and spreads heat like the 
sun. He travels with the gods, spirits, serpents and birds. He 
does not know fear ; dost thou wish to fight with him ? If thou 
dost wish to fight with Bali, O lord of Rakshasas, O thou gifted 
with great energy, do thou speedily enter (this house) and 
engage in the encounter.' Being thus addressed the Ten- 
necked demon entered where Bali was. Beholding the. lord 
of Lanka, the foremost of Danavas, resembling the flaming 
fire, and hard to look at like the sun, laughed. And taking 
that RSkshasa by the hand and placing him on his lap he 
said. ' O Ten-necked lord of Rakshasas, O thou having 
long arms, what desire of thine may I satisfy ? Do thou tell 
me what for thou hast come hither/ Being thus addressed by 
Bali Ravana said — *I have heard, O illustrious sir, that 
formerly thou wast bound by Vishnu. Forsooth I am cap- 
able of releasing thee from the bonds/ Hearing that Bali 
laughed and said — ' Hear, I shall relate to thee what thou 
hast asked, O R&vana. The red-hued man, who stands always 
at the door — by him formerly all the leading Danavas and 
other powerful lords were brought into subjection — by him 
I was also bound. He is invincible like unto death ; who is 
there on this earth that can deceive him ? He, who stands 
at the door, is the destroyer of all beings, creator and preser- 
ver and the lord of the three worlds. Thou dost not know 
him nor do I. He is identical with past, future and present 
and is the lord. He is Kali and he is Time — the destroyer 
of all beings. He is the destroyer and the creator of the 
three worlds — and he slays all beings mobile and immobile. 
And that lord of all gods again creates the universe without 
beginning or end. O night-ranger, he governs and preserves 
all sacrifices,* gifts and oblations to fire. Forsooth he is the 
creator and : je preserver of the universe — there is none so 
wonderful in I „*he three worlds. O son of Pulasta, He hath 
been guiding the former Danavas, myself, yourself like so 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


many beasts hound with ropes. Vitra, Danu, Suka, Sainbhu, 
Nishumbha, Sumbha, Kalanemi, Prahlada and others, kuta, 
Vairochana, Mridu, Jamala, Arjuna, Kansa, Kaitabha, and 
Madhu used to impart heat like the sun, appear resplendant 
like the rays, move about like air and pour showers like 
Indra. All of them celebrated many* a sacrifice and were 
engaged in austere penances. All of them were high-souled 
and considered the practice of Yoga as a great virtue. 
Having got by an immense accession of wealth they enjoyed 
many pleasures, made many gifts, celebrated many sacrifices, 
studied (many lores) and governed their subjects. They were 
all protectors of their own kith and kin and slayers of ene- 
mies ; and in battle, there was none equal to them in the 
three worlds. They were all heroic, of a high pedigree, versed 
in all sacred writings, proficient in all branches of learning and 
indomitable in warfare* Having defeated thousands of 
celestials in conflict, the high-souled ones conquered the 
regions. They were always engaged in those works which 
were not liked by the celestials and used to maintain their 
own men. They were all inflated with pride and haughtiness 
and effulgent like the newly-risen sun. The glorious Hari, 
the lord Vishnu, knoweth only how to bring about their 
destruction who perpetually assail the celestials. He creates 
all these and He, bringing about their 3cstruction, 
rxisteth in Himself at the time of dissolution. These 
highly powerful and high-souled DSnava chiefs, assum- 
ing shapes at will, have been destroyed by the glorious God. 
Besides, all these heroes, who have been heard of as being 
irrepressible and invincible in warfare, have been dis- 
comfitted by the wondrous power of Kritanta." Having 
$aid this the lord of Danavas again spoke unto the lord of 
R&kshsas — l O hero, O thou gifted with great strength, take 
that flaming discus which thou beholdest and come to my 
side. I shall then relate to thee the means of eternal 
liberation. Do what I have told thee, O thou having long 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

*634 RAM AY AN A. 

arms. Delay not Ravana." Hearing this the highly 
powerful Raksha proceeded, laughing, O descendant of Raghu, 
where that celestial kundala was. Ravana,proud of his prowess, 
easily took it up but could not move it by any means. And 
being ashamed that higly powerful one again attempted. 
As soon as it was uplifted the Rakshasa dropped down on 
ground, bathed in a pool of blood, like unto an uprooted 
Sala tree. In the meantime there arose a sound from Push- 
paka, and the councillors of that lord of Rakshasas cried 
aloud. Regaining his sense that Raksha rose up in a moment 
and lowered his head in shame. Bali said to him — "Do thou 
come, O foremost of Rakshasas and hear my words. O heroe, 
the kunda/a ,crested with jew r els, which thou didst assay to take 
up, is an ornament for the ear of one of my forefathers. 
This fell here on the ground, O thou gifted with great 
strength ; another kundala was thrown on the summit 
of the mountain. Besides these kundalas his crown 
was also cast off on the groud before the altar during the 
encounter. Formerly none bore enmity towards my ancestor 
Hiranya Kasipu — Time death, or illness. He had no death 
during the day, night, evening or morning. O foremost 
of Rakshasas, he did not experience death from any 
weapon whatsoever. He created a dreadful enmity 
with Prahlada. This conflict having taken place with the 
high-souled and heroic Prahlada there rose up a dreadful figure 
of man-lion — a terror unto all, O foremost of Rakshasas. 
And that terrible figure casting his looks about, all the worlds 
were over-whelmed. 

Thereupon taking him up with his arms he destroyed 
him with his nails. The person, who is standing at the door, 
is this supreme Vasudeva, void of passion. I shall now 
relate to thee the words of that supreme God ; do thou 
hear, if thy heart is filled with spiritual thoughts. The 
person, who is standing at the door, hath brought into sub- 
jection, in thossands of years, a thousand of Indras, an 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ayuta of gods and hundreds of great Rishis." Hearing 
these words Rlvana said — " (I have seen) Kritanta, the lord 
of spirits with Death himself, with hairs standing erect. 
Serpents and scorpions are his hairs — his tongue is hard as 
the lightning, his teeth are dreadful — his eyes are red and 
he is gifted with great velocity and a terror unto all beings. 
He is incapable of being looked at like unto the sun, uncon- 
querable in battle and is the chastiser of the sinners. He 
even was defeated by me in conflict. There I did not feel 
the least pain or fear, O lord of Danavas. I do not know 
(this person) — it behoveth thee to give me an account." 

Hearing the words of Ravana Bali said — "He is the 
lord Hari — Narayana — the protector of the three worlds. 
He is Ananta,* Kapilat JishnuJ and the highly effulgent Man- 
lion. § He is Kratudhamalf Sudhima|| and hath the dreadful 
mace in his hand. He is like unto the twelve Adityas, 
Purina and the excellent Purusha ; ho is like unto the red 
clouds — the lord of gods and the best god. O thou having 
long arms, he is encircled by flames, a great devotee and fond 
devotees ; this lord preserveth the universe and hath created 
it. And he, gifted with great strength, brought about des- 
truction in the form of Time ; and this Hari, with a discus 
in his hand, is sacrifice and is being worshipped in sacrifices. 

• Lit, eternal, endless. Here it is the name of Vishnu. 

t A celebrated Muni or saint, the founder of the Sankhya system of philo- 
sophy ; the son of Kardama by Devahuti and according to some an incarna- 
nation of Vishnu. 

J Lit — victorious, or triumphant, a name of Vishnu. 

f Sarasinha — a name of Vishnu. When prayed for by Prahlada to ap- 
pear from a pillar Vishnu came out in the shape of man-lion and slew Hiranya- 
Kasipu — the king of Datyas and father of Prahlada. 

% Protector of sacrifices — a name of Vishnu. 

'i Here it is evidently one of the names of Vishnu. In Vishnu Purana. 
Book 1, Chap. X. we find another account, Vircya>, married to Gauri, had 
Sudaman, a Loka pala, or ruler of the east quarter, a* his son 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1638 RAM AY AN A. 




_AVING spent the night on the picturesque summit of 
the mount Meru and thinking (for some time) the powerful 
lord of Lanka went to the region of the moon. (And 
he saw a person) proceeding, seated on a car, sprinkled with 
heavenly unguents and attended upon by Apsaras. And 
worn out with the satisfaction of desire he was being kissed 
there. Seeing such a person his curiosity was greatly excited. 
And beholding a Rishi there he said to him — " Welcome thou 
art, O celestial saint. Indeed thou hast come at a proper 
season. Who is this shameless wight that is going seated 
on a car and attended by Apsaras ? Does he not perceive 
his object of fear ?" Being thus addressed by Ravana, Parvata 
said — " O my child, O thou gifted with great intellect — Hear 
I shall describe to thee the truth. By him all the w r orlds 
have been conquered and Brahma hath been propitiated. 
And he is now proceeding to that excellent region full of 
bliss for obtaining final liberation. As all the worlds hav& 
been conquered by thee by virtue of thy asceticism, O lord of 
Rakshasas, so is he going, undoubtedly performing many pious 
actions and drinking Soma juice. O foremost of Rakshasas, 
thou art heroic, and hast truth for thy prowess. The powerful 
are never offended with the pious." Thereupon he espied an 
excellent, huge car, filled with all radiance and effulgence and 
the sound of musical instruments and singing. (And Ravana 
said) — " O great Rishi, who is that person, gifted with great 
effulgence, who goeth surrounded by charming songsters, 
dancing-girls and Kinnaras?" Hearing his words Parvata, 
the foremost of saints, again said — "He is heroic and a great 
warrior — he never returneth unsucessful from a battle-field. 
Having performed many heroic feats in battle, and slain many 
enemies, he hath been assailed with many wounds in fighting 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


and hath renounced his life for his master. Having destroyed 
many in battle, he hath at last been slain by his enemies and 
is perhaps now going either to the region of Indra or to some 
such place. This best of men is now being entertained by 
these well-versed in the art of singing and dancing." 

Rlvana again said — "Who goeth there effulgent like 
unto the sun ?" Hearing the words of R&vana, Parvata 
said — " The person, resembling the full moon and wearing 
diverse ornaments and cloths, whom thou beholdest, O great 
king, in the golden car abounding in ApasarSs, distributed 
gold. He, gifted with great effulgence, is now going in a 
swift-coursing car." Hearing the words of Parvata, R&vana 
said — "O foremost of Rishis, do thou tell me, who, of these 
kings going, if prayed for, may offer me the hospitality of a 
battle ? For sooth thou art my father ; do thou point out (such 
a man to me) O thou conversant with piety." Being thus 
addressed, Parvata again said to RSvana — " O great king t all 
these kings wish for heaven not for battle. I shall point 
out such a man, O great one, as shall enter into conflict with 
thee. There is a highly powerful king — the lord of seven 
islands, well known by the name of M&ndh&ta ; he shall 
enter into an encounter with thee." Hearing the words of 
Parvata, Ravana again said — '* Do thou tell me, O thou of 
great devotion, where this king resides. I shall go where lives 
this foremost of men." Hearing the words of Ravana, the 
sage again said — " The son of Yuvanaswha hath conquered 
the world consisting of seven islands begining with the 
sea ; M&ndhSta, the foremost of kings, is just coming to 
meet him." Thereupon (Ravana) having long arms, proud 
of the boon conferred upon him in the three worlds, beheld the 
heroic MSndh&ta, the lord of AyodhyS and the foremost of 
kings. The kingof seven islands proceeded in agolden and well- 
painted car resplendant like that of Mahendra, shining in his 
beauty and sprinkled with celestial unguents. The Ten- 
naked demon said to him — " Do thou give me battle." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1640 RAM AY AN A. 

Being thus addressed, he, laughing, said to the t en-necked 
demon — " If thy life is not dear unto thee, do thou fight with 
me, O Rakshasa." Hearing the words of Mandhata, Ravana 
said — " Ravana did not experience any affliction from Varuna 
Kuvera or Yama ; why should he experience fear from thee, 
who art a man ?" Having said this, the lord of Rakshasas 
as if burning in ire, ordered the Rakshasas irrepressible in 
battle. Thereupon the ministers of the vicious-souled 
Ravana, highly enraged and well-skilled in warfare, began 
to make a downpour of arrows. Thereupon the highly 
powerful king Mandhata, with sharpened shafts, assailed 
Prahasta, Suka, Sarana, Mahodara, Birupaksha, Akampana 
and other foremost heroes. Prahasta covered the king with 
his arrows-r-but before they had approached him, that foremost 
of men shattered them into pieces. Like unto fire burning 
down grass, the host of Rakshasas were burnt down by the 
king Mandhata by means of hundreds of Bhushundis, Vallas, 
Vindipdlds and Tomaras. As Kartikeya, the son of fire, 
sundered the mount Krauncha with his shafts so Mandhata, 
enraged, pierced Prahasta with five Tomaras gifted with 
great velocity. Then hurling his mace again and again 
resembling that of Yama, he struck, vehemently, Ravana's car 
therewith. That club, resembling the lightning, vehemently 
descended (upon Ravana' s car)and Ravana, like Sakra's banner, 
was speedily upset by that. Like unto the rising of the 
waters of the salt ocean on the full moon, the king Mandhata's 
joy and strength were greatly increased. Thereupon the 
entire Rakshasa host, emitting loud cries, stood encircling on 
all sides the lord of Rakshasas. Thereat speedily regaining 
his sense, Ravana, a terror unto all people, the lord of Lanka, 
greatly assailed the person of Mandhata. And beholding 
that king in a swoon, the highly powerful night-rangers were 
greatly delighted and emitted leonine roars. Regaining his 
sense in a moment the king of Ayodhya beheld his enemy 
worshipped by the courtiers and night-rangers. He was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


instantly worked up with ire ; and assuming a person resplen- 
dant like that of the sun and the moon he began to slay the 
Rakshasa host with a dreadful downpour of shafts. With 
his arrows and the noise thereof the entire Rakshasa army 
were overwhelmed like the agitated deep. Thereupon there 
arose a dreadful conflict between men and demons. And 
those two heroic, high-souled and foremost of men and 
R&kshasas seated on warriors' seats and holding bow and 
daggers entered (the field). And possessed by great anger 
they began to assail one another with shafts — Mfcndhita 
Rlvana and he again the king. They, being assailed .by one 
another, were both wounded. And setting the Raudra shaft 
upon his bow Rlvana discharged it and M&ndhata baffled it 
by means of his fiery shafts. The Ten-necked demon took 
up the Gandharva weapon and the king Mandhata the Brahma- 
weapon stricking terror unto all. Rivana then took up the 
celestial Pasupata weapon, dreadful and increasing the fright 
of the three worlds, obtained by him from Rudra by virtue of 
his rigid penances. Seeing this all animals, mobile and 
immobile, were stricken with terror. Thereupon trembled 
all the three worlds consisting of mobile and immobile beings 
— the celestials and all the serpents became inert. Being 
apprised (of this conflict) by virtue of meditation the two 
foremost of ascetics Pulastya and Galava remonstrated with 
them in many a way and prevented the king (Mandhata) and 
the foremost of Rakshasas. Thereupon that man and demon 
being reconciled with one another went back by the ways 
they had respectively come. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1642 RAM AY ANA. 

section xxvir. 

X HOSE two brahmans having departed, Ravana, the lordf 
of Rakshasas, proceeded, at first, by the aerial way, ten 
thousand leagues. He then went to the excellent uppper aerial 
fegiorr where live perpetually ganders gifted with many 
accomplishments. The extent thereof is also counted by ten 
thousand leagues and there are stationed closely three classes 
of clouds* namely Agneya, Pakshaja and Brahma. He.thea 
proceeded to the third excellent aerial region where perpetual- 
ly reside the high-minded Siddhas and Charanas and the 
extent whereof is also ten thousand leagues. O slayer of 
enemies, he then speedily proceeded to the fourth aerial 
region where perpetually dwell the goblins and Vinayakas. 
He quickly went to the fifth aerial region which also extends 
over ten thousand yoyanas where exist Ganga, the foremost of 
rivers, and the elephants headed by Kumuda, who pour down 
waters. They sport in the waters of the Ganges and pour 
down her holy waters. And those waters, parched by the 
rays of the sun and softened by the wind, pour down holy 
waters and dews, O Raghava. Thereupon that Rakshasa 
went to the sixth aerial region, O thou gifted with high 
radiance, which also extends over ten thousand yoyanas and 
where .dwells Garuda perpetually respected of his kinsmen 

* The three classes are (i) Agnija or produced from fire (2) Pakshaja or 
produced in a fortnight (3) Br&hma or produced from Brahma. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


and friends. He then went to the seventh aerial region which 
is ten thousand leagues above and where dewell the seven 
Rishis And again going up ten thousand leagues he reached 
the eighth aerial region where Ganga, known as the Ganges 
of the sky, having strong currents and sending high roars, 
and upheld by air, is situated on the sun's way. I shall now 
describe the region higher than that where resides the moon, 
and the extent whereof is counted by eighty thousand leagues. 
There dwells the moon encircled by stars and planets from 
whom proceed hundreds and thousands of rays which light up 
the worlds and conduce to the pleasure of all animals. 
Thereupon beholding the Ten-necked demon the moon as if 
burnt (him) down speedily with his cold fiery rays. And 
stricken with the fear of those rays his councillors could not 
stand them. Thereupon exclaiming his victory Prahasta said 
to Rivana — "O king, we are destroyed by cold, so we must 
go away from here. The Rakshasas have beeu terrified by 
the rays of the moon ; O foremost of kings, the cold rays of 
the moon have the natural property of fire in them." Hear- 
ing the words of Prahasta, Ravana, beside himself with wrath, 
having uplifted his bow and twanged it, began to assail him with 
Narachas. Thereupon BrahmS came speedily to the region 
of the moon and said — "O Ten-necked one, O thou having 
mighty arms, O direct son of Visravas, O gentle one, do thou 
repair hence speedily — do not oppress the moon — (for) 
this highly effulgent king of twice-born ones wisheth 
well-being unto all. I shall communicate to thee a mystical 
incantation ; He who recollects it at the time of death, does 
not come by it." Being thus addressed the ten-necked 
demon, with folded hands, said — "If thou art pleased with me 
O god ! O lord of the worlds, O thou of great penances, if 
dost thou wish to communicate that incantation, do thou 
impart it upon me, O thou of great piety ; reciting which, O 
great one, I may be released of the fear of the celestials. 
Forsooth, by thy favour, O lord of the celestials, I shall 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1644 RAM AY A^ A. 

be invincible by all'. the Asuras, Danavas and birds." Being 
thus accosted Brahma said to the ten-necked demon — a O 
lord of Rakshasas, do thou recite it at the time of death and 
not every day. Taking a string of beads, thou shouldst recite 
this holy incantation, on which, thou, O lord of Rashasas, 
shalt be invincible, And if dost thou not recite it thou shalt 
not meet with success. Hear, I shall communicate to thee 
the incantation, O foremost of Rakshasas, reciting which 
thou shalt obtain victory* in the en:ounter. 'Salutation unto 
thee, O god, O lord of gods, O thou worshipped of the celes- 
tials and Asuras. O thou identical with past and future, O 
great god, O thou having red eyes — thou art a boy albeit, 
thou assumest the form of an old man ; thou wearest tiger- 
skin. O god, thou art worthy of being worshipped, and the 
lord of the three worlds. Thou art Hara, Haritanemi, 
Yugantadahaka and Valadeva. Thou art Ganesha, Loka- 
Sambhu, Lokapala, and of huge arms ; thou art great, the 
holder of a huge dart, having dreadful teeth, and the greatest 
of gods. Thou art time, the strength and hast blue neck and 
a large belly ; thou art the destroyer of the celestials — the 
foremost of the ascetics and the lord of all created beings. 
Thou art the holder of a dart and hast the bull as thy 
emblem, art the leader, protector, the destroyer and the 
preserver; thou hast beared locks, art Mundi, Sikhandi, hast 
a crown, and art greatly illustrious. Thou art the lord of 
sprites and goblins, the soul of all, the protector of all, omni- 
scient, the destroyer of all, the creator and the eternal pre- 
ceptor. Thou art lord, earnest a kamandalu* in thy hand, 
art the holder of a Pinakaf and DhurjatiJ thou art, worthy 

* An earthen or wooden water pot used by the ascetic and religious student, 
t The bow of Siva. A trident or three-pronged spear. 
% A name of Siva from dhur, a burden and Jati, a collection ; who collects 
or bears the burthen of the three worlds. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


of veneration, the most excellent OM, the first chanter of 
Saman, the death, the element of death, P&rijatra* and 
observant of penances. Thou art an ascetic, livest'in a cave 
and earnest a Vin&t PanavaJ, and quiver in thy hands ; 
thou art immortal and art like the newly-risen sun to behold. 
Thou livest in a cremation ground, art the illustrious lord of 
Umi and above all blemishes Thou didst uprootthe eyes of 
Vagadeva and teeth of PushlL Thou art the destroyer of 
fever, boldest mace in thy hand' and art (the very) dissolution 
and time. Thou hast got a fire-brand in thy mouth, hast fire 
as thy emblem, art highly resplendent and lord of men. 
Thou art mad, makest people tremble, art the fourth, and 
most respected of men ; thou art a dwarf, V&manadeva and 
the dwarf who circumambulates the east. Thou art a beggar, 
wearest the semblance ot a beggar and art by nature 
crooked ; thou didst assail Indra's hands and the Vasus. 
Thou art, the season, the maker of seasons, time, honey and 
hast honeyed eyes. Thou art a tree bearing fruits and 
blossoms, hast arrows as thy seat and worshipped by people 
of all conditions perpetually. Thou art the protector and the 
creator of the universe, the Purusha, eternal and certain ; the 
lord of all religions, Virup&ksha, the three qualities and the 
protector of all beings. Thou art three-eyed, assumest many 
forms and brilliant as the Ajuta suns ; thou art the lord of 
all celestials, the foremost deity and wearest bearded locks 
having the impressions of the moon ; thou art connected with 
Brahman, worthy of being resorted to and identical with all 
created beings. Thou blowest all bugles, severest all ties ; 
thou dost charm and bind (all) and dost always bring about death. 
Thou hast flowery teeth, art a division, the foremost and the 

• The name of a mountain, apparent!/ the central or western portion of 
the Vindkya chain. 

f A kind of stringed musical instrument. 

I A sort of musical instrument ; a small drum or tabor. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1646 RAM AY AN A. 

destroyer of all ; thou .hast dreadful beards, boldest a bow, 
art- fearful and gifted with dreadful might.' These eight 
hundred holy and excellent names have been uttered by me 
which remove all iniquities, are holy and afford shelter to 
those who seek for it ; if do thou recite them, O ten-necked 
one, thou shalt be able to destroy thy enemies. 1 ' 


H AV1NG conferred this boon upon Ravana the grand- 
father, sprung from lotus, speedily returned to the region of 
Brahman. And having obtained the boon Ravana too came 
back. After a few days that Rakshasa Ravana, the dread of 
all people, arrived at the banks of the western Ocean with 
his councillors. And on the island a person was seen bright as 
fire under the name of Mahajambunada, seated there alone. 
He had a dreadful figure and was like unto the fire at 
dissolution. And beholding that highly powerful person 
amongst men like unto the chief of gods amongst the celestials, 
the moon amongst the planets, the lion amongst the Sarabhas,* 
the Airavata amongst the elephants, the Meru amongst the 
mountanis, and the Parijata amongst the trees, the ten-necked 
demon said — " Give me battle." Thereat his eyes became 
agitated like unto planets and from the clashing of his teeth 

• A fabulous animal supposed to have eight legs. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


there arose a sound like the clapping of thunder-bolts. And 

the highly powerful Das&nana too roared with his councillors. 

And with darts, Saktis, Rishtis and Patticas he again and 

agarn assailed that highly effulgent person, havingSlong arms, 

a dreadful appearance, huge teeth, a grim figure, a conch-like 

neck, spacious breast, a belly like that of a frog, a countenance 

like that of a lion, legs like the mount KailSsa, red palms, 

red hands, emitting dreadful roars, huge-bodied, gifted with 

the velocity of mind and air, dreadful, carrying quiver, bells 

and chowries, encircl cd by a burning flame and emitting a 

sweet note as a net-work of Kinkini does, having a garland 

of golden lotuses hung round his neek, appearing graceful 

like unto the Rig-Veda, be-decked with lotus garlands, 

resembling the Anjana and golden mountains. As the 

lion is not moved by the attack of a wolf, the elephant by 

that of a bull, the Sumeru by the king of serpents and the 

great Ocean by the current of a river, so that great personVas 

not agitated and said to the ten-necked demon — " O vcious- 

minded night-ranger, I shall soon remove they desire for a 

battle." O Rama, the might of that person was a thousand 

times greater than that of RSvana which was dreadful unto 

all the worlds. Piety and asceticism, which are at the root 

of attaining to every thing in the world, are at his thighs ; 

Cupid is his male organ, the Viswadevas are at his waist 

and the Maruts are at the sides of his Basti ; the Vasus are in 

the middle portion of his body, the oceans are in his belly, the 

quarters are on his sides, the Maruts are at his joints — the 

manes are one his back and the grand-father has taken shelter 

in his heart ; the pious acts of making gifts of kine, gold and 

lands are his downs ; the mounts Himaylaya, Hemkuta, 

Mandara, and Meru are his bones ; the thunder-bolt is his 

palm, the sky his body ; the evening and watery cloud* 

are on his neck, the creator, the preserver and the Vidya- 

dharas are on his two arms. Ananta, VSsuki, Visalaksha 

Ira vat, Kamvala, Aswatara, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1648 RAM AY AN A. 

venomous Takshaka, and Upatakshaka, have taken shelter 
under the nails of his hands, in order to vomit forth* their 
venom. The fire is in his mouth, the Rudras are on his 
shoulders, the fortnights, months, years and seasons are on 
the rows of his teeth ; the lunar half and the dark half of the 
month are in his nostrils — and the airy currents are in the 
pores of his body. Saraswati, the goddess of words, is his 
neck, the two Aswins are his ears, the sun and the moon are 
his two eyes. O Rama, all the divisions of the Vedas, 
Yagmas, the whole host of stars, good words, energy, asceti- 
cism — all these are being supported by his body, assuming 
*he shape of a man. Thereupon that Purusha easily struck 
Ravana with his hands hard as thunder. Being assailed 
thereby Ravana immediately fell on the ground. Beholding 
that Rakshasa fallen and having distressed others that huge 
person, like unto the Rig-Veda, resembling a mountain and 
be-decked with lotus garlands, entered the region under the 
earth. Ravana addressed his councillors thus — "O Prahasta, 
O Sukasarana and other ministers, where hath that person 
suddenly gone ? Do ye tell me this." Hearing those words 
of Ravana the night-rangers said — "That man, who crusheth 
down the pride of the celestials and demons, hath entered 

As Garuda goes speedily taking a serpent so that vicious- 
minded Ravana arrived quickly at the entrance of the den. 
And Ravana, having no fear, entered therein. And having 
entered there he saw males resembling the red collyriuxn, 
wearing keyuras? heroic, be-decked with red garlands, past- 
ed with red sandal and adorned with diverse golden orna- 
ments and jewels. He saw there three millions, of such 
high-minded persons, devoid of fear, pure, radiant like fire, 
dancing being mad after festivities. Beholding them the 
Ten-necked demon, of dreadful prowess, was not the least 

• A kind of ornament used on arms. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


terrified, and rather saw their dance, standing at the gate. 
They were all like the male being he had seen before. They 
were all of the same colour, same dress, same figure and 
equally gifted with great energy. They were all gifted with 
four arms and great energy. Beholding them the down of the 
Ten-necked demon stood erect though a boon had been con- 
ferred upon him by the Self-born and he speedily issued out 
of that place. And he again saw another huge person lying 
down on a bed. His house, seat and bed were all white and 
valuable and he was sleeping enveloped by fire. And there 
sat gracefully with a fan in her lotus hands, the goddess 
Laksmi — most beautiful in the three worlds — (as if) the orna- 
ment thereof, chaste, adorned with celestial garlands,sprinkled 
with excellent sandal paste, be-decked with rich ornaments 
and clad in a precious raiment. Having entered there with 
out any councillor the vicious Ravana, the lord of Rakshasas, 
on beholding that chaste damsel with sweet smiles seated on 
a royal seat, being possessed by desire, grew anxious to hold 
her by the hand, as one, under the influence of death, catches 
a sleeping serpent. Beholding that lord of Rakshasas with 
loose cloth and understanding him as desirous of holding (her) 
the deity, having huge arms, asleep and enveloped with 
flames, laughed aloud. And scorched suddenly by his 
energy, Ravana, the dread of all people, fell down on earth 
like unto an up-rooted tree. Beholding that Rakshasa fallen 
he said the following words : — "Rise up, O foremost of Raksh- 
asas, thou shalt not meet with death today ; thou shalt live 
and be protected, O Rakshasa, by the great Patriarch's boon. 
Do thou therefore go away, O Ravana, with confidence — thou 
shalt not experience death just now." Regaining his sense 
instantly RAvana was stricken with fear. And being thus 
addressed, that enemy, of the celestials, stood up and with his 
down erect, said to that highly rcsplendant deity — " Who art 
thou gifted with great energy and like unto the fire of dissolu- 
tion ? Tell me, who art thou, O deity and whence thou hast 

Digrti^d by G00gk 

1650 RAM AY AN A. 

come hither." Being thus accosted by the vicious-souled 
Ravana, the deity, smiling, replied in words deep as the 
muttering of clouds, saying — " What shalt thou do with me 
O ten-necked demon ? Thou art not to be slain by me now" 
Being thus addressed the Ten-necked demon, with folded 
palms said — " By the words of the Patriarch (Brahma) I shalt 
nottread the path of death; there is none born amongst men, or 
the celestials who can equal me, and disregard; by virtue of 
his prowess, the great Patriarch's boon. His words can never 
be falsified — every great exertion is weak before them ; I do 
not behold any such man in the three worlds who can render 
that boon useless. O foremost of the deities, I am immortal — I 
do not fear thee ; and even if I meet with death, I may have it 
from thee and no one else, O Lord. My death from thee is 
both glorious and praise-worthy." Thereupon Ravana, gifted 
with dreadful prowess, beheld within the bod} of that deity, 
all the three worlds with mobile and immobile creations. 
The Adityas, the Maruts, the Sidhas, the two Aswins, 
Rudras, the manes, Yama, Kuvera, the oceans, mountains, 
rivers, all the divisions of the Veda and knowledge, fire, 
planets, stars, sky, Siddhas, GandharbdS, Chararias, the 
ascetics conversant with the knowledge of Vedas, Garuda 
and the serpents, the other deities, Yakshas, Daityas and 
Rakshasas, were all seen in their incorporeal forms, on the 
person of that great Purusha, lying down. Thereupon the 
virtuous-souled Rama said to Agastya, the foremost of Munis 
— " Who is that male being stationed in the island ? Who 
are those three kotis male beings ? And who is this person 
who crusheth down the pride of the Daityas and Danavas? ,> 
Hearing Rama's words Agastya said — "O thou existing eter- 
nally, O god of gods, hearken, I shall relate (it) unto thee. 
The person stationed in the island is the illustrious Kapila. 
All those dancing persons are the deities equalling that 
intelligent Kapila in energy and power. And that Rakshasa, 
bent on sin, was not seen by him with angry looks, and there- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 


fore, O R£ma, Ravana, was not there and then reduced to 
ashes. And he, resembling a mountain, with his person 
pierced, fell on the ground. As a wily wight goes through a 
secret so he pierced (Havana's person) with his shaft-like 
'words. Having regained his sense, however, after a long 
time, that Rakshasa, of great prowess, returned where his 
councillors were. 



HlLE thus returning the vicious-souled Ravana, 
with delight, carried away stealthily, on his way, the 
daughters of the royal saints, celestials and Danavas. 
And whatever beautiful damsel he saw, married or unmarried, 
that demon held them captive in his car, having slain all their 
friends and relatives. In this wise he got on his chariot 
many a female of the Nagas, Rakshas, Asuras, Yakshas, 
Danavas and of men. And they, all afflicted, shed tears, hot 
as firey flames, caused by fear and fire of grief. As the ocean 
is filled with the currents of the rivers so that car was flooded 
with their tears originating from fear and sorrow. And wept 
there in the chariot, hundreds of the females of NSgas, 
Gandharvas, of great ascetics, Daityas and of Danavas. They 
had long airs, graceful persons, countenances resembling the 
full-moon, rising breast, slender waist like that of a black-bee 
and were graceful with back like the pole of a car. They were 
like the females of the celestials and the burning gold and 
were all afflicted by grief, sorrow and terror and were young. 
And the car was ablaze on all sides with the sighings of those 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1652 RAM AY AN A. 

damsels and Pushpaka looked like the chamber where fire is 
kept perpetually. The countenance and eyes, of those 
beautiful damsels, brought under the subjection of the ten- 
necked .demon, and afflicted with sorrow, looked poorly like 
a hind attacked by a lion. Some thought — "Will he eat me 
up" and another, stricken with sorrow, thought — "Will he 
destroy me ?" Thus remembering their mothers, fathers, 
husbands and brothers, all those females, overwhelmed with 
grief and sorrow, bewailed, some exclaiming — ''What shall 
befall my son in my absence ? Alas ! into what ocean of 
grief my mother or brother is sunk ? Alas ! what shall my 
husband do in my absence ? Therefore, O death, I propitiate 
thee, do thou take me, who am subject to miseries. Alas ! 
what an iniquity did I perpetrate in my former birth in 
another body ? Therefore, we all, overwhelmed with grief, 
are sunk in the ocean of sorrow — and I do not behold the end 
of my miseries. Oh ! fie upon humanity ; there is none more 
vile than a man for they are weak. As the stars disappear 
with the rising of the sun in time, so our husbands have been 
destroyed by the powerful Ravana. Oh ! highly powerful is 
this Raksha and he is mad after devising the means of destruc- 
tion. Alas ! being engaged in such vile actions, he does net 
consider himself cursed ; he is as powerful as he is vicious. 
And though the ravishment of another's wife is a greats in, 
still that vile Rakshasa is enjoying us who belong to others. 
Therefore this vicious-minded one shall meet with death, by 
his own actions." As soon as these words were uttered by those 
chaste damsels, bugles were sounded in heaven and flowery 
showers fell on earth. Being thus imprecated by those chaste 
females, devoted to their husbands, he became shorn of energy 
and effulgence and appeared like one divested of mind. 
Hearing their lamentations thus and being honored by the 
night-rangers that foremost of Rakshasas entered his city 
Lanka. In the interval, Ravana's sister, a dreadful and grim- 
visaged she-demon, suddenly fell down on the ground. An 1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


having raised up his sister and consoled her Ravana said — 
"Tell me speedily, O good sister, what you wish to say." 
Thereat that she-demon, having blood-red eyes, closed with 
tears, said : — "O king, by thee, powerful as thou art, I have 
forcibly been made a widow. Fourteen thousand demons, 
under the name of Kalakeyas, have been destroyed by thee, 
O king, in the battle and amongst them was my highly power- 
ful husband — dearer than my life. He has been slain by 
thee, O dear one, an enemy — a brother only in name. I have 
been killed by thee, O king, who art my brother. For thee, 

king, I shall enjoy the word 'widow !* My husbandf 
should have been saved by thee in the battle. But he was 
slain by thy ownself in the battle ; art thou not ashamed of 
this ? M Being thus addressed by his bewailing sister, the Ten- 
necked demon, consoling her in sweet words, said : — "Of no 
avail is thy lamentation, dear sister; thou needst not be afraid 
of any of thy relatives. I shall please thee studiously by gifts, 
honors and favours. Being mad after war-fare and desirous of 
acquiring victory,! was continually makinga downpour of shafts, 
so I could not distinguish in the conflict between my own men 
and enemies, — and thus unwittingly I did hurt thy husband. 
And thus, sister, thy husband was slain by me in the conflict ; 

1 shall now do whatever shall conduce to thy well-being. Da 
thou ever reside by the side of thy rich brother Khara and 
he shall be the lord of fourteen thousand R&kshasas. That 
highly powerful one shall give food and clothes to all those 
R&kshasas. He is thy cousin and that night-ranger shall 
always carry out thy orders. Let that hero now speedily go 
to protect the Dandaka forest and the highly powerful 
Dushana shall be the commander of his forces. And the 

• This is the literal translation of the passage — i.e. for thee, I shall for ever 
be known as widow. 

f The word in the text is Jdmata % which literally means son-in-law — but 
here perhaps it must mean husband for she was his sister. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


i6 5 4 RAM AY AN A. 

heroic Khara shall always obey .thy words and be the lord of 
Rakshasas assuming shapes at will." Having said this the 
Ten-necked demon issued orders to his army — fourteen thou- 
sand highly powerful Rakshasas. Being encircled by those 
grim-visaged .Rakshasas, Khara, undaunted, speedily cam-; to 
the Dandaka forest. There he goverened without thorns and 
Surpanakha too also resided in the forest of Dandaka. 



^AVING thus given the command of a huge and dread- 
ful army to Khara and. consoled his sister the Ten-necked 
demon was satisfied and freed from anxiety. Thereupon 
that highly powerful lord of Rakshasas with his followers 
entered an excellent garden in Lanka named Nikumbhila. 
And there, he saw, filled with hundreds of sacrificial posts 
and altars, a sacrifice being celebrated, as if burning in its 
lustre. And he beheld his fearful son Meghnada too, clad in 
an antelope skin and holding Sikha and Kamandalu. Having 
seen him (there) and embraced him by his arms the lord of 
Lanka said : — "What are you after, O my child ? Tell me 
the truth. " Thereupon that foremost of twice-born ones 
Usanas* of austere penances, wishing the prosperity of the 
sacrifice, said to Ravana — the Rakshasa chief : — a Hear,I shall 
relate to thee everything, O king ; thy son hath met with 

* Another name of Sukra. Indrajit took the vow of silence so he thought 
it improper to disturb him. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the fruits of many a sacrifice — Agnistoma,* Asvamedha,t 
Bahusubarnaka,t Rajsuya,§ Gomedha|| and Baisnaba.1T And 
being engaged in this Maheswara sacrifice, which is incapable 
of being celebrated by men, thy son hath obtained boon from 
Pasupati$ himself. 

He has also obtained illusory powers — which create darkness 
or ignorance — namely of ranging in the sky, of being eternal, 
of ascending a celestial car which curses at will and of creating 
darkness. O lord of Rakshasas, these illusory powers being 
usued in a conflict, even the celestials and Asuras shall not 
be able to perceive his course. Besides he has obtained a 
quiver, the arrows whereof shall never be exhausted, a bow, 
which is hard of being got by and a dreadful weapon which 
destroys enemies in a conflict. Having obtained these boons 
thy son, O thou having ten faces, and myself, the sacrifice 
being finished, have been waiting to behold thee." Whereto 
the Ten-necked demon replied — " You have not done well 
as you have worshipped, with diverse articles my enemies — 
Indra and others. However, what is done is done ; there is 
virtue in this — no doubt ; come,0 gentle one,we shall go to our 
house.' 1 Thereupon going there with his son and Bibhishana, 
the Ten-necked demon got down all those damsels,speechless 
with tears, gifted with auspicious marks,the precious females of 
the celestials, Danavas and Raskshasas. Perceiving his vicious 
desire for those damsels, the virtuous-souled (Bibhishana) 

• A sacrifice or rather a series of offerings to fire for five days to be cele- 
brated in the spring. 

t The actual or emblematic sacrifice of a horse, this sacrifice is one of the 
highest order, and performed a hundred times, entitles the sacrificcr to the 
dominion of Swarga or paradise. 

% A sacrifice in which profuse gifts of gold are made. 

4 A sacrifice in which all the tributary chiefs pay homage to the Lord 

f The offering or sacrifice of a cow. 

% A sacrifice relating to Vishnu. 

$ A name of Siva 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1656 RAM AY AN A. 

said : — "Thou dost (still) follow thy own whims, knowing that 
people are injured by these actions which destroy piety, 
wealth and fame. Having slain their kinsmen thou hast 
brought these beautiful damsels hither, but disregarding thee, 
O king, Madhu hath carried away Kumbhanasi." 
Ravana said : — "I donot understand all this. Who is that 
Madhu, who has been named by thee ?" Worked up with ire 
Bibhishana said to his brother : — "Hear, the fruit of thy vicious 
actions hath arrived. There was an old Rakshasa, celebrated 
for his wisdom, named Malyavan,the elder brother of Sumalin, 
our maternal grand. father. His grand-daughter is Kumbha- 
nashi and is born of our maternal aunt Anala ; so she is 
virtually our sister. Thy son being engaged in the sacrifice 
and myself being under waters she was stolen away, O king, 
by the powerful Rakshasa Madhu. Kumbhakarna, O great 
king, was then asleep. Having slain all the powerful Raksh- 
asas and thy councillors, he had stolen her away, O king, who 
was in thy inner apartments. Hearing this even, O great 
king, we have pardoned and not slain him ; an unmarried girl 
should be given away to her husband by her brothers, but 
that has not been the case — this is merely the result of thy 
vicious actions — wicked-minded as thou art. And this thou 
hast met with instantly — so the people say." Hearing the 
words of Bibhishana, Ravana, the lord of Rakshasas, became 
agitated like an ocean, by the recollection of his vicious 
deeds. And engaged, with blood-red eyes the ten-necked 
demon said — "Get my chariot ready soon and let all the 
heroes of our party be prepared. Let my brother Kumbha- 
karna and other leading night-rangers, armed with various 
weapons, ascend their conveyances. Having slain today in 
the encounter that Madhu, who is not afraid of Ravana, I 
shall, encircled by my friends, and desirous of battle, proceed 
to the region of the celestials." Thereupon issued out for 
battle leading Rakshasas four thousand Akshauhini strong 
taking various weapons. Commanding them Indrajit preceded 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the army, R&vana went in the middle and Kumbhakrna 
was in the rear; the virtuous-souled Bibhisana remained 
in Lanka, being engaged in pioUs observances. And the 
rest of the leading Rakshasas proceeded towards the city 
of Madhu. And all the Rakshasas went covering the sky, 
some on asses, some oil camels, some on horses, some on 
quick-coursing porpoises and some on huge serpents. And 
beholding Ravana proceed, hundreds of Daityas, inimical 
to the celestials, followed him. Having arrived at the city 
of Ma\dhii and entered there the ten-necked demon did 
not behold Madhu but espied his sister. Thereupon being 
afraid of the king of Rakshasas, Kumbheenashi, with folded 
palms, touched his feet with her ciown. Having 
raised her up the Rakshasa-chief Ravana said " No 
fear, what can I do for you ?" Whereto she replied — "O king, 
O thou having long arms; if thou art pleased with me, do 
not slay my husband to-day, O corfferrer of honours. It is 
said there is no other fear like this for damsels of high 
pedigree. The greatest ol fears is that of being a widow. Be 
thou truthful, O king of kings — do thou look towards me, 
who am thus begging* Thou hast thyself said, O king; " no 
fear." Being thus addressed Ravana said to his sister there :— 
•' Do thou tell me speedily where is thy husband. I shall go 
with him for conquests to the region of the celestials. Out 
of pity and loVe fdr thee I refrain from slaying Madhu.'! 
Being thus accosted; that Rakshasi, being pleased, got her, 
sleeping husband, the night-ranger, up and said : — " Here i» 
my brother, the highly power Dacagriva. Being desirous 
of conquering the region* df the celestials he prays for thy 
help. Do thou therefore proceed to his help, O Rakshasa, 
with all th£y friends. It behoves thee to help him, who out 
of affection for me, hath prayed for thy help." Hearing 
those words Madhu said : — "So be it." And approaching a 
little he beheld that foremost of Rakshasas and duly welcomed 
Ravana. Being thus honoured the highly power Dacagriva 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1658 RAM AY AN A. 

spent one night in Madhu's house and then, addressed 
himself for departure. Thereupon reaching the hill Kail^a, 
the abode of Baisravan, the lord of Rakshasas, resembling 
Mahendra, encamped his army. 


^/V-FTER sunset the highly power Ravana encamped his 
army there. And the clear moon, brilliant as the mountain, 
having risen, that huge army, armed with diverse weapons, be- 
came asleep. And lying down on the summit of the mountain, 
the highly powerful Ravana espied the caves beautified with 
the rays of the moon and the trees. And the interior of the 
forest was beautified with the brilliant groves of Karnikar, with 
Kadamba and Vakula trees, groves of full blown lotuses, the 
waters of Mandakini, with Champaka, Asoka, Punnaga, 
Mandara, mangoe, Patala, Lodra, Pryangu, Arjuna, 
Ketaka, Tagara, Coconut, Pyala, Panasa and 

various other trees. And there sang the Kinnaras, 
possessed by desire, and having sweet voice, enhancing the 
delight of the mind. And there danced mirthfully, with their 
damsels, the Vidyadharas, inebriete and having their eyes 
reddened with drink. There was audible in the house of 
the lord of riches, the sweet music of the assembled Ap- 
saras like unto the sound of the bell. And being shaken by 
the wind the nectar-smelling trees made the hill fragrant 
with the shower of flowers. And carrying the fagrance 
rendered salutary with honey and filaments of flowers, the 
excellent wind blew enhancing Ravana' s desire. Being pos- 
sessed by desire through songs, richness of flowers, coldness 
of air, beauty of the hills, and the rising of the moon in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


light, the highly powerful R&vana espied again and again 
the moon with heavy sighs. At this time passed by that way 
the foremost of ApsarSLs, Rambhi, adorned with excellent orna- 
ments and having a countenance like the full moon. Her 
person was sprinkled with excellent sandal paste — her hairs 
were decked with Mand&ra flowers — her body was beautified 
with other flowers and her movements tended to increase 
desire. Her eyes were beautiful and her waist was high, 
adorned with Mekhala* and was as if the refuge of Ratif. 
Her forehead and other parts of the countenance were 
painted with the marks of red sandal and adorned with 
ornaments of flowers growing in six seasons. Rambha 
appeared like second Sree, in grace and beauty, natural and 
artificial. She wore green clothes resembling the clouds ; her 
face was like the moon, eye brows like excellent bows, thighs 
like the trunks of elephants and palms soft as leaves. She 
was seen by R&vana as proceeding in the midst of soldiers. 
Having got up and been influenced by lust he took her, 
shameful as she was, by the hand and smiling said : — 
"Where art thou going, O beautiful damsel? Whom art 
thou going of thy own accord to satisfy ? Whose prosperous 
time hath appeared, with whom thou shalt enjoy? Who 
shall be satisfied with drinking the nectar of thy mouth 
smelling like lotus? Whose breast, O fare damsel, 
thy rising breast beautiful like two golden pots closely 
placed, shall touch ? Who is there so beautiful as I — Indra, 
Vishnu, or two Aswins that thou art passing by me ? Do thou 
take rest upon this excellent rock, O thou having charming 
waist. There is no other lord, save me, in the three worlds. 
And Da9&nana, the lord of the lords of the three worlds, 
thus begs thee, with folded palms. Do thou therefore seek 
me." Being thus addressed, RambhSL, trembling, with folded 

* A kind of ornament used on the waist. 

t Wife of Kama — the god of Io?e in Hindu mythlogy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

? 66o RAM AY AN A, % 

palms, said : — "Be thou propitited ; it doth not behove thee 
fo speak thus, who art my superior. Rather shouldst thou 
protect me if any body else trieth to oppress me. Virtually 
I am thy daughter-in-law. I speak to thee the truth." There- 
upon the Ten-necked demon said to her, standing with her 
face downwards, and her down standing erect at his very 
sight. •' Hadst thou been the wife of my son, thou would- 
st have been my daughter-in-law." Whereto Rambha 
replied: — "Truely it is ; I am, by virtue, the wife of thy 
son, O foremost of Rakshasas. Thy brother Vaisrabana 
hath a son, dearer than his life, celebrated in the three 
worlds under the name of Nalakuvara. In virtue he is like 
unto a Brahmin, in prowess he equals a Rshatrya, in anger 
he is very fire and in patience he is like the e^rth. I have 
been thus directed by that Lokapala's son. For him I 
have adorned my person with these ornaments. I am not 
attached to any body else but him. O king, O slayer of 
foes, by virtue of (this relation) it beboveth thee to save 
me. And that virtuous-souled one is anxiously expecting 
me. Thou shouldst not put obbtacle in that; it behoveth thee 
to let me go ; do thou, O foremost of Rakshasas, wend the 
way treaded by the pious. Thou art worthy of being revered 
by me and I am an object of thy protection." Being thus 
addressed Dacagriva humbly replied :— " I am daughter- 
in-law," as thou hast said, is worthy of being said by one 
who is the only wife. This is the everlasting law of the 
celestials that the Apsaras have no husband ; they cannot 
be the wife of one husband." Having said this, the Raksha 
ravished her. Being released from his grasp Rambha became 
divested of her ornaments and garland and became like the 
river agitated by the elephants. Her hairs were dishevelled 
and her hands were trembling. Like unto a blossoming 
pfeeper shaken by the wind, she, trembling and bashful 
and with folded hands, went to Nalakuvara and fel} 
flown at his feet. Having seen her in that plight the high- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 


souled Nalakuvara said — " fair one, what is this ? Why 
hast thou placed thyself at my feet ?" Sighing heavily and 
and trembling she, with folded palms, related to him every- 
thing from the beginning to the end. O lord, on his way to 
heaven, Da^agriva hath arrived here and hath spent the 
night with his army. While I was coming to thee, O slayer 
of foes, I was seen by him. Then holding me he said — "Where 
art thou going?" I related to him everythig truly. But 
being possessed by lust he did not pay heed to my words. 
He was again prayed by me, O lord, saying *i am thy 
daughter-in-law." But neglecting that he ravished me. O 
thou of firm vows, it behoveh thee to forgive me for this 
folly. O gentle one, a woman's strength can never 
equal that of a man." Hearing of this ravishment 
Vaisravana's son was greatly enraged and entered into 
meditation. Having ascertained the truth within a moment 
Vaisravana's son, with eyes reddened with ire, took water 
in his palms. Having taken this and rinsed his mouth duly, 
he imprecated a dreadful curse upon that lord of Rakshasas. 
" O fair one, since thou hast been ravished by him despite 
thy unwillingness he shall never be able to get by an 
unwilling damsel. Whenever he shall, stricken by lust, 
ravish a reluctant damsel, his head shall be sundered into 
seven pieces. As soon as this curse, like unto a burning 
flame, was uttered, the celestial bugles were sounded and 
a shower of flowers fell from heavens. Being apprised of 
the plight of people (brought about by him) and of the 
4eath of that Rakshasa the patriarch Brahma and other 
gods were greatly delighted. Hearing of that curse capable 
of making the down erect, Dacagriva abstained from enter- 
taining lust for unwilling females. And hearing of the curse 
imprecated by Nalakuvara all the chaste damsels, that were 
)cept captive, attained to great delight. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i66i RAM AY AN A. 


X1AVING crossed the mount Kaila^a, the highly powerful 
Ten-necked demon, with his army, reached the region of 
Indra. And there arose in the region of celestials an uproar 
from the Rakshasa army, like unto the sound of the agitated 
deep. Hearing of the arrival of Ravana, Indra shook on his 
throne and said to the assembled gods, Adityas, Vasus, 
Rudras, Sadhyas and Maruts — " Prepare yourselves, for 
fighting with the vicious-souled Ravana." Being thus ad- 
dressed by Sakra, the celestials, his equals in the encounter 
and gifted with great prowess, armed themselves for tight. 
And Mahendra, afraid of Ravana, poorly went to Vishnu and 
gave vent to the following accents : — " How shall I, O Vishnu, 
withstand, the Rakshasa Ravana ? The highly powerful 
Rakshasa hath come here for battle. It is by virtue of the 
boon that he is powerful, not for any thing else. It is proper 
to make the words uttered by Brahma, truthful. As resorting 
to thy prowess I destroyed Namuchi, Vitra, Bali, Naraka 
and Samvara, so do thou make some arrengements (for his 
destruction). There is no other excellent refuge but thee in 
the three worlds, mobile and immobile, O lord, O god of gods, 
O slayer of Madhu. Thou art the graceful, ever-existing 
Narayana, having a lotus navel. By thee the worlds have 
been settled and myself and Sakra, the lord of the celestials. 
Thou hast created the three worlds, the mobile and immobile, 
and in thee all these shall, O glorious deity, end at the time 
of dissolution. Do thou tell me, the truth, O god of gods, 
that I may myself fight ; or do thou, with thy sword and 
discus, vanquish Ravana." Being thus addressed by Sakra 
the lord Naranaya ; said : — " Do not fear, hear what I say. 
He is invincible by virtue of the boon, and that vicious-souled 
one is incapable of being vanquished even by the celestials 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and Asuras. Irrepressible by virtue of his prowess, that 
Rlkshasa, with his son, shall accomplish a mighty object. 
O lord of celestials, even if I am requested by thee, I shall 
not withstand the Rakshasa, Ravana in the conflict. Without 
slaying the enemies in the encounter, Vishnu doth never go 
back — but it is hard to fulfill my desire from Ravana, well 
protected by the boon. However I do promise before thee, 
O lord of the celestials, O performer of hundred sacrifices, I 
shall, soon become the cause of this Rakshasa's death. I 
shall soon destroy Ravana with his family in due time and 
afford delight unto the celestials. I speak the truth unto 
thee, O king of the celestials, O lord of Sachi ; do thou 
divested of fear, fight, O thou gifted with great strength, 
along with the celestials." Thereupon having issued out of 
the city, Rudras, Adityas, Vusus, Maruts and Aswins well- 
armed with mails, appeared before the Rakshasas. Mean- 
while at the latter part of the night there was audible the 
uproar of Ravana's army fighting on all sides. Having 
got up and cast their looks upon one another the highly 
powerful Rakshasas waited there for the battle, delighted. 
Thereupon beholding that inexhaustible huge army at the 
commencement of the battle the celestial host lost heart. 
Thereupon there ensued a conflict, setting up a terrible 
sound, with various weapons between the Rakshasas and 
gods. In the interval issued out for encounter the heroic 
and grim-visaged Rakshasas — Ravana's councillors. And 
encircled by Maricha, Prahasta, Mahaparswa, Mahodara, 
Akampana, Nikumbha, Suka, Sarana, Sanghrada, Dhumaketu, 
Mahldangstra, Gathodara, Jambumali, Mahahrada, Viru- 
paksha, Suptaghna, Yajnakopa, Durmukha, Khara, Trisira, 
Karaveeraksha, Suryyasatru Mahakaya, Attkaya, Devantaka, 
Narantaka, — all those gifted with great prowess, there entered 
the battle-field, the highly powerful Sumalin, Ravana*9 
maternal grandfather. And with various sharp-pointed 
weapons, he, highly angered, began to assail the celestial host 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1664 RAM AY ANA. 

like unto the winds scattering clouds. Being thus distressed 
by the night-rangers the host of the gods fled away into 
diverse directions like a herd of deer attacked by a lion. In 
the meantime, entered the battle-field, the heroic and brave 
Savitra, the eighth Vasu, encircled by soldiers and stricking 
terror into the hearts of the enemies. And the two Adityas, 
the highly powerful Tushtha, and Pusha united and undaunted, 
entered the arena. Thereupon there arose with Rakshasas 
a terrible encounter* of the celestials unable to bear their 
fame in battle. Then the Rakshasas, with thousands of 
terrible weapons, began to belabour the deities in the 
encounter. And the celestial**, as well, began to send the 
redoubtable, powerful and terrific Rakshasas, with the stroke 
of blameless weapons, to the abode of Death. In the interim, 
O Rama, a Rakshasa, Sumalin, by name, getting enraged, 
and with diverse weapons, ran amock of the soldiery. As 
the winds scatter clouds, so, he, under the influence of rage, 
with various sharpened weapons, committed a havoc amongst 
the celestial soldiers. Thereupon being assailed by a down- 
pour of huge shafts, maces, Prasas and diverse dreadful 
weapons, the celestials could not keep their ground upon the 
field of warfare. The celestials being thus distressed by 
Sumalin the eighth Vasu Savitra stood there enraged. And 
encircled by his own car-warriors that highly powerful one/ 
with his prowess, repulsed the stricking night- rangers. There^ 
upon there arose a terrible encounter, capable -of making 
down erect, between Sumalin and the Vasu, who did uot 
retire from the field of battle. His chariot drawn by 
serpents was pulled down and destroyed by the high-souled 
Vasu by means of his huge shafts. Having destroyed his 
car in the warfare with hundreds of arrows Vasu took up 
mace in his hands for his destruction. Having taken up that 
mace having a burning head and resembling the rod of Death 
Savitra struck Sumalin on his head therewith. Having fallen 
on his head that mace shone like a fire-brand as the thunder- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 


bolt, discharged by Indra, falls roaririg on the summit of a 
mountain. By the stroke of that mace his person was re- 
duced to ashes and therefore there was not seen in the battle 
field either his bone, head or flesh. Having beheld him slain 
in the warfare the RSkshasas bewailing ran about on all 
sides and being distressed by Vasu they could not stay in the 
battle field. 


JJEHOLDING Sumalin slain and reduced to ashes by Vasu 
and being assailed by the deities the Rakshasa host fled into 
diverse directions. And collecting all the Rakshasas stood 
there the highly powerful Meghanada, enraged, the son of 
Rivana. Like unto flaming fire approaching towards forest 
that great car-warrior encountered the enemies in a precious 
car coursing at will. And as soon as he, armed with various 
weapons, entered the field the celestials, at his very sight, fled 
away to all directions. None could stand before him, well- 
versed in war-fare. Thereupon beholding the deities terrified 
and pierced with shafts, Indra, the king of gods, said — " Be 
not afraid, O ye celestials ; do not fly away ; come back to the 
battle ; this my son, who has never been vanquished, goes to 
battle." Thereupon Sakra's son, known as divine Jayanta, 
proceeded towards the field of action in a wondrous car. 
And having encircled Sachi's son and encountered RivanS's 
son the deities began to assail him. And the encounter 
between Mahendra's son Jayanta and RSvana's sonMeghanSda, 
and that between the deities and Rakshas was like one 
between gods and demons. Thereupon RAvana's son began to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 666 RAM AY AN A. 

assail, with shafts feathered in gold, his (Jayanta's) charioteer 
Gomukha, M&tali's son. Sachis' son too, enraged, assailed 
on all sides, Ravana's son and his charioteer. And the 
powerful Ravani, stricken with ire and with eyes expanded, 
covered Sakra's son with arrows. Thereupon Ravana's son 
struck the celestial host with thousands of huge mountain 
summits, Sataghnis, maces, P rasas, clubs, daggers, Parashus 
and various other sharp pointed weapons. Ravana's son 
thus striking Indra's army the quarters were enshrouded 
with darkness by his illusory power. Being overpowered 
with arrows on all sides the celestial army, leaving aside 
Jayanta, became restless. The deities or the Rakshasas — they 
could not recognize one another — and being distressed they 
ran about on all sides. Being enveloped w r ith darkness and 
having their senses bewildered the celestials killed their own 
kith and the Rakshasas their own men — and others fled away. 
In the interim a heroic and powerful Daitya-chief — PulomS, 
by name, taking Sachi's son disappeared. And taking his 
own grand-son he entered into the ocean — Puloma was his 
grand-father for by him Sachi was begotten. And thinking 
that Jayanta was slain all the deities greatly sorry and 
distressed fled away on all sides. Thereupon Ravana's son, 
enraged and encircled by his own powerful followers, pursued 
the celestials emitting loud cries. Not beholding, his son and 
observing the flight of the deities the king of the celestials 
said to Matali — "Bring my car." By Matali was brought, 
the celestial, highly dreadful, huge and quick-coursing chariot, 
that was ready. (And he having) ascended the car, the huge 
clouds, with lightnings, being driven by winds, began to emit 
forth loud mutterings before the chariot. And the Gandhar- 
bas began to play on various instruments and the Apsaras 
began to dance. And taking up various weapons, Indra, the 
king of divinities, set out for the field of action, in the 
company of Rudras, Vasus, Adityas, the two Asvvins and 
Maruts. He, having set out for battle, the winds began to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


blow high, the sun was divested of its brilliance and the huge 
fire-brands began to send out flames. In the interval the 
heroic and the highly powerful Da^agriva ascended the 
celestial car, constructed by the Architect of the deities, 
encircled by the huge-bodied serpents capable of making 
down erect and by whose breath the battle-field was ablaze. 
Surrounded by demons and night-rangers and with the 
celestial car he encountered Mahendra in the battle-field. 
And having desisted his son he himself stood there. And 
having come out from the field of action RSvana's son too 
stood silent. Thereupon there arose an encounter between 
the R&kshasas and the deities and there began a downpour of 
weapons in the conflict like clouds. And the vicious-souled 
Kumbhakarna armed with various weapons came there — 
but he did not know,* O king, with whom the conflict was 
going on. And by him enraged, the celestials were assailed 
with his teeth, feet, arms, hands, Saktis, Tomaras and clubs 
or any weapon whatsoever. Thereupon the night-ranger 
engaged with the highly powerful Rudras and was wounded, 
in the conflict, with incessant strokes of weapons. There- 
upon the Rikshasa army began to fight with Maruts 
and they were overwhelmed in the encounter with 
the stroke of various weapons. Some fell down on earth 
slain and torn and others became insensible on the back 
of their carriers in the battle. And they all stood there in a 
half-sensible mood, some holding the car, some elephants, 
some asses, some camels, some serpents, some horses, some 
porpoises, some boars, some Pisa^a-mouthed animals and some 
embracing the Pannagas. And other night-ranges, having 
their bodies sundered by the deities gave up their being. The 
Rakshasas being slain and lying down on earth the action ap- 
peared wondrous like a painting. And there issued out in the 
battle-field a river from weaponb having blood for its silent 

• For he was asleep till then so he was not acquainted with the particula rs 
war- {are. He used to sleep for six months at a time. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1668 RAM AY AN A. 

waters and infested with crows and vultures. Having beheld his 
own army slain by the deities the highly powerful Da^nana, 
enraged, entered the ocean of celestial army and slaying the 
deities in the conflict confronted Sakra. Thereupon Sakra 
took up his huge bow by the twang where-of the ten quarters 
Were filled. Having unstrung his huge bow Indra struck 
Ravana, on his head, with arrows resembling the flame of 
fire and the rays of the sun. And the Rlkshasa-chief Da^a- 
nana, having long arms, also assailed Indra with hundreds 
of shafts discharged off his bow. They having been thus 
engaged with each other with the downpour of dreadful 
Shafts, all the quarters were filled with darkness and in- 
consequence thereof nothing was visible. 


X HEREUPON darkness having set in all the celestials and 
Rakshasas, maddened with their strength, began to fight 
crushing one another. And in that darkness — Indra, Ravana 
and MeghanSLda — these three were not possessed by the 
influence of illusion. Beholding his whole army slain in a 
moment, R&vana, worked up with dreadful ire, sent out 
terrible roars. And in anger, that irrepressible one said to 
the charioteer, stationed on the car — "Do thou take me to 
the other end of the enemies' host." I shall soon with the 
stroke of various weapons despatch the deities to the abode 
of Death. I shall slay Indra, Kuvera, Varuna and Yama — 
what to speak of more — I shall soon destroy all the deities 
and place myself above them. Be not sorry ; do thou soon 
drive my chariot. To-day I have told you twice to take me 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to the end of the enemy's army. We are now waiting near 
the Xandana grove — do thou take me to the hill whence the 
son rises." Hearing his words tRe charioteer drove the 
steeds, coursing at will through the enemies' host. 
Thereupon being apprised of his intention, Sakra, 
the king of the celestials, stationed on car, said 
to the deities, in the field of battle — "O ye deities — hear 
my words, what appear to me best. This Ten-necked 
demon must be vanquished by us while alive. Ascending his 
car, gifted with the velocity of the wind, the highly powerful 
one is proceeding amongst the army like unto the deep with 
waves rising during Parva. It is not possible to slay him 
r.ow — for he shall not meet with death in consequence of 
the boon. So let us make him captive — and we should all 
exert to that end. Bali being held captive I am enjoying 
the three worlds — and I think proper to obstruct the course 
of this vicious-souled one. " Having said this and left aside 
Ravana, Sakra went to another side, O King, and fought 
terrifying the Rakshasas in the conflict. Dacagriva, in- 
capable of being thwarted, entered by the northern route 
and the performer of hundred sacrifices by the southern. 
Thereupon having entered into the army up to a hundred 
leagues — the lord of Rakshasas overpowered the celestial 
host with a downpour of shafts. Thereupon beholding his 
own army slain Sakra, returned fearlessly and obstructed 
the Ten-necked demon. In the interim beholding Ravana 
brought under his grasp by Sakra the demons and Rakshasas 
cried aloud. " Alas we are slain." Thereupon ascending 
his car Ravana's son, beside himself with rage, entered the 
dreadful flank. And having resorted to the illusory powers, 
conferred upon him in yore by Pacupati he entered into the 
enemies' camp and belaboured them. Having left behind all 
other deities he pursued Indra and the highly effulgent 
Mahendra too espied his enemy's son. And albeit assailed 
by the highly powcrfuf deities, Ravana's son, divested of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

I670 RAM AY AN A. 

mail, entertained no fear. Having overpowered the approa- 
ching charioteer with many excellent arrows he covered 
Mahendra with a downpour of shafts. Thereat having left 
his car and charioteer Indra mounted his elephant Airavat 
and ran about in search of Ravana's son. Being invisible 
in the welkin by virtue of his illusory powers and having 
brought Indra under the influence thereof he struck him 
with hundreds of arrows. When Ravana's son came to 
know that Indra was exhausted he, having bound him up 
by virtue of illusion, proceeded towards his army. And 
having seen Mahendra carried away by force from the 
battle field the deities thought 'What is this?" That 
conqueror of Sakra and subduer of enemies, conversant 
with illusory powers, was not visible, by whom, Indra, 
although master of many illusions, was carried away by 
force. In the meantime, the celestials, all enraged, covered 
Ravana with a downpour of shafts and belaboured him. 
And being worn out in the encounter with the Adityas 
and Vasus he was not capable of fighting any more. 
Beholding his father thus distressed and assailed in war- 
fare with strokes, Ravana's son, although invisible, said — "Do 
thou come O father, our work in the battle field is finished ; 
know, we have achieved victory ; be thou consoled and divest- 
ed of agonies. By virture of my illusory powers I have 
made Mahendra captive — the lord of the three worlds 
and of the celestial host and have crushed down the pride 
of the deities. Having subdued thy enemy by virtue of thy 
prowess do thou enjoy the three worlds at thy pleasure. 
What is the use of labouring again ? And useless it is to 
fight again." Hearing the words of Ravana's son the 
deities retired from the battle field, and went away without 
Sakra. And hearing the sweet words of his son, the lord 
of the night-rangers, the enemy of the celestials, having great 
prowess and wide spread fame, desisted from fighting and affec- 
tionately said to his son — " Thou hast enhanced the glory of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


our race displaying thy prowess like a highly powerful 
man. Thou hast vanquished the celestials and their king 
of unequalled might. Do thou set out hence for the city, 
taking Indra on thy chariot and surrounded by soldiers. I 
shall, soon, delighted, follow thee with my councillors." 
Thereupon having returned home with his army and 
chariots and taking the king of the celestials, the powerful 
son of Rlvana dismissed the victorious warriors. 


X HE highly powerful Mahendra being thus defeated by 
Rlvana's son, all the celestials, taking the patriarch Brahma 
before them, went to Lanka. Having obtained RSvana 
encircled by his sons and brothers the Patriarch, stationed in 
the welkin, calmly said — "My son, R3vana, I have 
been pleased with thy son in the conflict. Oh ! what 
wonderful prowess, what strength— equal or greater than 
thine. Thou. hast, by thy own prowess, conquered the three 
worlds — thy promise hath borne fruits — I have been pleased 
with you — both the father and son. O R&vana, this thy son 
is highly powerful and gifted with gieat strength and he shall 
be celebrated in the world under the appellation of 'Indrajit' 
or the conqueror of Indra. And that R&kshasa shall be 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

16/2 /RAM AY ANA. 

powerful and "irrepressible, by whose help, O Icing, Che 
celestials have been brought under thy subjection. Do thou 
therefore, O thou having long arms, release Mahendra, the 
chastiser of Paka and forgetting him free what do thou want 
from the celestials ?" Thereupon the highly powerful Indrajit 
— the subduer of enemies, said : — "If dost thou say so, O god, 
I pray for immortality." Thereat the highly powerful 
patriarch said to Meghanada — "There is none perfectly 
immortal on earth amongst created beings — birds, quadrupeds 
and other highly powerful beings." Hearing the words 
uttered by the grand-father — the highly powerful Meghanada 
said to the eternal lord — "Hear, then, what I want in exchange 
for releasing Sakra. May a chariot with horses rise up from 
fire when I shall offer sacrifices unto it, being desirous of 
vanquishing my enemies in the conflict. And may I be 
immortal as long as I shall remain on that car. This is the 
boon I have resolved upon praying for. May I meet with 
destruction, O deity, whenever I shall engage in fight without 
finishing my offerings unto fire. All others, O god, attain 
to immortality by virtue of devout penances but I shall acquire 
that by dint of my own prowess." Whereto the grand-father 
replied saying "so be it." Thereupon Meghanada released 
Indra and the celestials returned to their own abode. In the 
interval, O Rama, Indra became poorly, divested of his 
immortal brilliance, stricken with anxiety and pensive. 
Beholding him in that plight the grand-father of the deities 
said : — "O performer of hundred sacrifices, why didst thou 
formerly perpetrate that mighty iniquity ? O Chief of the 
immortals ! O lord !, some creatures were created by me 
by dint of my understanding — they were all of the same 
colour, same speech, and same appearance. There was no 
difference visible in their appearance or marks. Thereupon, 
with whole-minded-ness, I began to think of these created 
beings. And I created a female distinct from them. Collect- 
ing all those limbs that were most excellent amongst the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


'reated, I made a female under the r.ame of Ahalya. Hal 
means ugliness — one born from Hal is called Halya. That 
female was known as Ahalya because she had nothing 
blameable in her. I gave her that name. Having created that 
female I was thinking, O king of the celestials ! O foremost 
of the deities !, on whom I should confer her. Being proud of 
dignity, O Sakra, O lord, O Purandara thou didst regard her 
in thy mind as thy spouse. I placed her under the care of 
the high-souled Gautama and he rendered her back after 
many long years. Thereupon considering the patience and 
accomplished asceticism of Gautama I married her with him. 
And that virtuous-souled, great ascetic enjoyed her company ; 
and for my thus conferring her upon Gautama all the 
celestials were disappointed. But being enraged and possess- 
ed by lust thou didst repair to the hermitage of the ascetic 
and see her resplendant like the flaming fire. Maddened 
with lust and ire thou didst ravish her and thou wast seen in 
that hermitage by the great ascetic. Thou wast then impre- 
cated by him, enraged and gifted with great effulgence saying, 
*0 lord of the celestials, thou hast attained to a change of 
circumstances — for which, O Vasava, thou hast fearlessly 
ravished my spouse. Thou shalt, therefore, O Sakra, go 
under the arms of the enemies, in conflict. And this vile 
desire, O thou having a vicious intellect, which thou hast first 
created, shall undoubtedly spread in the world of mortals. 
Whoever shall commit this crime, shall be half responsible 
for it and the other half shall descend upon thee ; and for- 
sooth thy position shall not be permanent. And whoever 
shall be the lord of the celestials, shall not have his position 
secure. This is the curse I give, which I have communicated to 
thee.' And having remonstrated with his wife that one of 
devout penances said to her — 'O vicious one, let thy beauty 
be spoiled in the vicinity of the hermitage. Thou art gifted 
with beauty and youth but thy mind ie fickle ; so thou shalt not 
continue as the single beautiful damsel in the woild All crcat- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1-674 RAM AY AN A. 

ed beings shall participate thy beauty ; thy matchless beauty has 
brought about this mischief.' Thenceforward all created beings 
were gifted with beauty. Thereupon she propitiated the 
ascetic Gautama saying, "O twice-born one, I was unwittingly 
ravished by Indra, assuming thy form. I have not committed 
this willingly, O ascetic — so do thou be propitiated with me." 
Ahalya having said this, Gautama replied : — "In the race of 
Ikshwakus, there shall be born a highly effulgent and mighty 
car-warrior, known in the world as Rama ; for performing 
the rites of a Brahman, the mighty-armed Vishnu, assuming a 
human form, shall repair to the forest. Thou shalt be purified 
when thou shalt behold him,0 fair damsel. He shall be able to 
purify thee from the iniquity perpetrated. Having treated him 
as a guest when thou shalt come to me again, thou shalt 
live with me, O thou having a fair countenance. ,, Having 
said this that ascetic returned to his hermitage. And 
thenceforward the wife, of that ascetic chanting the 
themes of Brahman, engaged in austere penances. Thou 
hast met with all this in consequence of the imprecation 
of that ascetic. Therefore, O thou having long arms, do 
thou think of thy past iniquity. For that curse and 
nothing else, O Vasava, thou hast been brought under the 
grasp of enemies. Having controlled thy senses, do thou 
soon undertake a sacrifice in honor of Vishnu. Thou shalt 
be purified by that sacrifice and go to heaven ; and thy 
son, O lord of celestials, hath not been destroyed in the 
conflict. He hath been taken into the ocean by his grand 
father." Hearing this and having celebrated the sacrifice 
in honor of Vishnu he again went to the region of celestials 
and reigned there as their king. I have thus described 
to thee the strength of Indrajit — what to speak of others 
he vanquished even Indra — the king of the celestials." 
Hearing the words of Agastya, Rama, Lakshmana, Vanaras 
said " wonderful it is" ; and Bibhu 
' the side of Rama, said : — "After a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


long time, the old recollections have come to my mind." 
Thereupon RSma said to Agastya — "All, thou hast said, is 
true." And Agastya said " Rama, Ravana, the thorn of 
people, then grew in power, by whom, in the company 
of his son, Indra, the lord of the celestials, was defeated. 


JL HEREUPON having bowed unto Agastya the foremost of 
ascetics, the highly effulgent R&ma again surprisingly said*: — 
" O Brahman, O foremost of twice-born ones, when that 
cruel Ravana journeyed over the earth, was it void of people ? 
Was there no king, or prince on earth to administer punish- 
ment unto him ? Were all the kings then shorn of 
their strength and prowess? And many kings I (hear) were 
vanquished and driven out by him with various excellent 
weapons.' Hearing the words of RSLghava, the ascetic 
Agastya, having six sorts of wealth, laughing said, like unto 
BrahmS, speaking to Rudra — " O R§ma, O lord of earth, 
traversing the earth, Ravana arrived at the city of Mahismati, 
resembling the city of the celestials, where lived perpetually 
the deity of fire. There reigned a king named Arjuna, efful- 
gent like fire which was kept perpetually in a well covered 
with Sara. One day the highly powerful Arjuna, the king 
of HaihayaSt repared to the river Nerbuda, with his wives to 
sport. At the very same day, R&vana, the lord of Rakshasas, 
arrived there and asked his councillors saying. " Where is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1676 RAM AY AN A. 

the king Arjuna ? Do ye speedily tell me; lam Ravana, 
I have come to fight with your king. Do ye, at first, com- 
municate unto him the news of my arrival." Being thus 
addressed by Ravana, the learned ministers informed the 
lord of Rakshasas, of the absence of the king. Hearing of 
the absence of the king from the citizens Visrasraba's son 
came out of the city and reached the Vindhya mountain 
resembling the Himalayas. He espied the mountain exten- 
ding over the welkin like unto clouds and rising up as if 
riving the earth and obstructing the sky. The mountain had 
a thousand summits and the lions were residing in the caves 
and hundreds of fountain were falling from it ; the mountain 
was -as if laughing aloud and the celestials, Gandharbas, 
Apsaras and Kinsaras were sporting there with their females ; 
and it appeared (in consequence thereof) like the region of 
celestials ; and rivers, with waters transparent like crystal, 
were flowing. And it therefore appeared like a thousand 
serpents having trembling tongues. And casting his 
looks upon Vindhya mountain, resembling the Himalayas 
and having huge caves* Ravana, the king of Rakshasas, 
reached the river Nerbuda, of holy waters and going 
rapidly to the western ocean. Her waters were being 
agitated by buffaloes, deer, tigers, lions, bears and elephants 
distressed by heat. Having covered her, Chakrabakas, 
Karandavas, swans, water-cocks and Sarasas, maddened, were 
emitting notes. The charming Nerbuda appeared like a 
beautiful damsel — having blossoming trees for her ornaments f 
Chakrabakas for her breast, wide spread forest for her waist, 
the row of swans for Mekhala, filaments of flowers for paste, 
watery foams for white silken cloth, the pleasure of descending 
into water for the pleasure of touch and full-blown lotuses 
for white eyes. Having descended from his car and bathed 
in the waters of Nerbuda, the foremost of streams, resem- 
bling a fair one, Ravana, the lord of Rakshasas, with, his 
councilors, sat on her coast resided by many an ascetic- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 


Delighted at her beauty and having spoken highly of Xerbuda 
like unto Ganges he addressed his ministers Suka and Sarana 
with gestures, saying : — "Behold, having rendered the earth 
pale, with his many rays, the sun, emitting parching 
heat, is in the sky. But seeing me here seated, 
his rays have become cool like those of the moon. 
At my fear, even the wind is blowing carefully, being 
cold and fragrant by the touch of the waters of the Nurbada 
and removing our toil. This charming Nerbuda, abounding 
in crocodiles, fishes and birds, though a natural stream, is 
standing still like a terrified damsel. Being wounded in 
conflicts with many a king your persons have been pasted 
with blood. Therefore like unto Sarvabhauma and other 
infuriated elephants going down into the water of the 
Ganges, do ye descend into the water, of Nerbuda conferring 
suspiciousness and health. Bathing in this stream you shall 
be cleansed from sins. I shall, also on the coast of this river, 
like the rays of the autumnal moon, reTerentially worship with 
flowers Mahadeva, holding PinSLka in his hands." Hearing the 
words of Ravana, Prahasta, Suka, Sarana, Mahodara, Dhru- 
maksfaya and other councillors descended into the waters 
of Nerbuda. And she was agitated by those elephant- 
like leading Rakshasas like unto the Ganges by Vamana, 
Anjana, Padma and other elephants, Thereupon having 
got up from the waters the highly powerful Rakshasas 
culled flowers for Ravana's offerings. And in a moment 
the Rakshasas collected heaps of flowers on the pic- 
turesque banks of Nerbuda, resembling the white clouds. 
Flowers being thus collected, Ravana, the king of Rakshasas 
descended, into the Nerbuda for bathing like a 
huge elephant into the Ganges. And having bathed he got 
up, reciting excellent incantations. Thereupon having left 
off his wet cloth he put on a white one. And to find out 
place for worshipping, he, with folded hands, proceeded 
towards the banks. And the Rakshasas too, like unto so 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1678 RAM AY AN A. 

many moving mountains, followed him. And wherever 
Ravana went the golden Siva Linga was brought. 
Thereupon Ravana placed that upon a heap of sands 
and began to worship it with various nectar-smelling 
flowers and sandal. And having finished the worship of 
Siva, the foremost of deities, having the moon on his 
crown, the conferrer of boons and the remover of miseries, 
the night-ranger danced with uplifted hands and sang 
before it. 




jr no distance from where on the banks of the 
river Nerbuda, that dreadful lord of Rakshasas collected the 
flowers, Arjuna, the King of Mahismati, and the foremost 
of the victorous, was sporting with his wives in the water. 
And being encircled by them the king Arjuna appeared 
like a leading elephant surrounded by a thousands of she 
elephants. In order to measure the strength of his thousand 
arms the King of Haihayas obstructed the course of 
Nerbuda. Being obstructed by the arms of Karta- 
virjarjuna and having flooded the banks with her pure 
waters, Nerbuda flowed in an opposite direction. And 
the currents, rising high as during the rainy season 
flowed with fishes, and crocodiles. And that stream, as if 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


driven against Rivana by Kirtavirjarjuna, carried away his 
collection of flowers. And having given up his worship which 
was half-finished Ravana looked towards Nerbuda looking 
like an unwilling damsel and saw that she, with rising currents, 
was flowing towards the east from the west and the waters 
beyond that were in a natural state like a quiet lady and the 
birds were seated there without any anxiety. Thereupon being 
anxious to learn the cause of the rise of the river, the Ten- 
necked demon, with his right finger, hinted Suka and S&rana. 
Being commanded by Ravana, the two brothers, the heroic 
Suka and Sarana proceeded towards the west by the aerial 
way. And going half a league, the two night-rangers espied 
a man sporting in the waters with some females. He was huge 
as a S&Ia tree, his hairs were floating on the water, he was 
inebricte and his eyes were reddened in consequence thereof. 
Like unto Sumeru holding the earth with his thousand feet 
he obstructed the current of the river with his thousand arms. 
And he was surrounded by a thousands of beautiful damsels like 
an elephant by a thousands of she-elephants. Beholding that 
dreadful spectacle, the R&kshasas Suka and Sarana came 
back and approaching Ravana communicated (all) unto him. 
**0 lord of R&kbhasas, an unknown person, huge as a S&la 
tree, is sporting with females obstructing the course of 
Nerbuda like unto a dam. And being withheld by the 
thousand arms of that man the waters of Nerbuda were 
continually throwing up high waves." Hearing the words of 
Suka and Sirana, RSvana exclaimed "This is Arjuna" and 
proceeded to fight with him. Ravana, the lord of R&kshasas, 
having set out with a hostile intention against Kirtavirjarjuna, 
the wind mixed with dust began to blow high with tumultuous 
sound. And the clouds began to mutter with a downpour of 
rain. And the lord of R&kshasas proceeded against Arjuna 
with Mahodara, Mah&parswa, Dhrum&kshya, Suka and 
Sirana. Within a short time the dreadful R&kshasa, power- 
ful as the elephant Arjuna, reached the banks of Nerbuda 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i68o RAAfriYANA. 

and espied there Arjuna encircled by females as an elephant 
surrounded by she-elephants. At the very sight the eyes of 
the lord pf Rakshasas, prpud of his prowess, grew red and 
addressing the councillors of the king Arjuna he said "Do 
ye communicate unto the king of Haihayas that Ravana, the 
lord of Rakshasas, hath come to fight with him." Hearing 
the words of Ravana, the ministers of Arjuna stood up with 
arms and said :— "O good Ravana, thou art well cognizant 
Of the proper time for fighting. Now our king is drunk and is 
sporting with the females in the waters. And now dost thou 
wish to fight with him. Therefore, O Ten-necked one, do 
thou spend the night here, if thou art bent upon fighting. Or 
even if thou art anxious to enter speedily into conflict with 
Arjuna do thou slay us all at first, and then fight with the 
king." Thereupon the hungry councillors of Ravana, slew- 
some of the ministers of the king and devoured some. There 
arose a dreadful uproar on the banks of Nerbuda, of the 
councillors of Ravana and Arjuna. The warriors of Arjuna 
assailed Ravana and his ministers with hundreds of arrows, 
Pracas, darts, Tomaras, thunder-bolts and Karpanas. The 
warriors of Arjqna became dreadfully furious and emitted cries 
like the roaring of the deep infested with crocodiles, fishes 
and other marine monsters. Thereupon being enraged and 
displaying their own prowess Suka, Sarana and other 
ministers of Ravana began to destroy Arjuna's soldiers. 
Thereupon the emissaries, stricken with fear, went to the 
sporting king and communicated unto him the proceedings of 
Ravana and his ministers. Hearing those words and saying 
unto the females"Do not fear^he rose up from the waters like 
an elephant. The eyes of that fire-like Arjuna were reddened 
with ire and he shone dreadfully like the fire of dissolution. 
And taking up speedily his club, that one, always using 
golden clubs, pursued the Rakshasas like unto darkness 
following the sun. Holding up the huge club and hurling 
it with his arms, Arjuna, resorting to the velocity of Garud<i. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


went on. Thereupon stood there obstructing his course 
Rakshasa, worked up with anger and with a mace in his 
band, like unto the Vindhya range standing in the way of 
the sun. And throwing down off his hand the iron mace, 
be, in anger, began to roar, like Yama. And the top of the 
mace was ablaze like the tips of Asoka flowers. Not the 
least agitated on beholding that mace, the king Arjuna, by 
his club, baffled its action. Thereupon uplifting the huge 
club, five hundred hands long, the king of Haihayas pursued 
Prahasta. And within a short time being struck down by 
that club gifted with great velocity Prahasta fell down on 
earth like unto the summit of a mountain clapped down by 
the thunder-bolt of Indra. Beholding Prahasta fallen, 
Mlricha, Suka, Sarana, Mahodara and Dhrumakshya fled 
away from the battle-field. All the councillors having thu3 
fled away and Prahasta being slain Ravana speedily pro- 
ceeded towards Arjuna, the foremost of kings. Thereupon 
there ensued a terrible encounter capable of making dowrt 
erect between the thousand-armed Arjuna, the king of men, 
and the twenty-armed Ravana, the king of Rakshasas. 
And taking up their clubs Arjuna and Ravana began to 
fight with one another emitting cries like the mutterings 
of clouds, like unto two huge bulls fighting for a cow, two 
agitated oceans, two moving mountains, two effulgent 
Adityas, two burning flames, two proud elephants, two 
proud lions and like the very Rudra and Kala* As the 
mountains suffer many clappings of thunder-bolts so did 
they bear many strokes. And all the quarters were re- 
sounded with the sound proceeding from the stroke of 
their clubs like unto the sound of thunder-bolts. Being 
placed against the breast of Ravana Arjuna's club rendered, 
for a moment, the welkin look like the burning gold as does the 
lightning. And striking again and again against Arjuna's breast 
Havana's club looked Jike a huge fire-brand. Arjuna was 
not worn out nor was RSLvana. And the conflict went on 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1682 RAM AY AN A, 

between them like the encounter between Bala and 
Vasava in the days of yore. The King of men and the 
King of Rakshasas assailed and wounded one another 
with their clubs like unto two bulls striking one ano- 
ther with their horns and two elephants with their 
tusks. Thereupon worked up with rage, Arjuna, with 
his full might, smote Ravana on his breast, with his club. 
But Ravana was well protected by the boon of the 
celestial, so the club fell on earth sundered into two 
pieces like one hurled by a weak wight. Still wounded by 
the mace of Arjuna, Ravana, shedding tears, ran away at a 
distance of four feet and sat there. Beholding Ravana 
thus over-Whelmed Arjuna sprang up and . caught him 
like Garuda holding a serpent and Vishnu binding Bali. 
Da9agriva being thus bound, the Siddhas, Charanas and 
the celestials exclaiming "Well done ! Well done !! ,f shower- 
fed flowers upon Arjuna. And the king emitted leonine 
roars again and again as a tiger joyous roars like a 
cloud, holding a deer under his grasp. Regaining his sense 
and beholding Ravana bound, Prahasta, in great anger, 
pursued, the King of Haihayas. And the Rakshasa force 
grew tempestuous like unto the rising of the ocean during 
rains. Thereupon exclaiming repeatedly " Leave him off ! 
Leave him off !! Wait ! Wait !!" The Rakshasa host hurled 
hundreds of Musalas and darts in the battle-field. Not the 
least moved thereby the king Arjuna, the slayer of enemies, 
bore those weapons of the enemies of the celestials. There- 
upon baffling the weapons of the Rakshasas by means of 
manv a dreadful and excellent one, Arjuna, the king of 
HaihayaS) drove them away like winds scattering the clouds. 
Having thus struck terror unto the night-rangers, he, encircled 
by his own kinsmen, repaired to his own city with Ravana, 
carrying him bound like unto Indra carrying Bali bound. 
Thereupon flowers and fried paddy were showered upon him 
by the Brahmanas and citizens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X HEREUPON Pulastya heard from the celestials of the 
capture of Ravana like unto the holding of the wind * And 
having been moved by the love for his son, the highly efful- 
gent, great ascetic, proceeded to see the king of Mahishmati. 
Proceeding by the aerial way, that twice-born one, gifted 
with the velocity of wind and the flight of mind, reached the 
city of Mahishmati. Like unto Brahma entering Indra's 
Amaravati, he entered the city resembling the capital of 
ladra and filled with delighted and plump citizens. And 
beholding that dreadful Rishi approach like unto Aditva 
walking on foot, the warders communicated the intelligence 
unto the king Arjuna. Understanding from their words that 
Pulastya was coming, the king of Haihayas, placing his 
folded palms on his crown, proceeded to welcome him. Like, 
unto Vrihaspati preceeding Purandara, the royal prests went 
before him carrying, Madmpark* and water to wash feet. And 
beholding the ascetic resembling the rising sun arrived, the 
king Arjuna bowed unto him reverentially like Indra saluting 
Mahideva. Thereupon offering him Maduparka % cow and 
water to wash feet, the king of Haihayas, in accents 
obstructed with delight, addressed the ascetic saying: — 
" Reverend Sir, thine visit, it is hard to obtain. On behold- 
ing thee my city Mahishmati hath been turned into Amaravati. 
To-day have I obtained all auspiciousness,0 lord ; to-day hath 
my religious observance been fruitful ; to-day hath my birth 
proved blessed and to-day hath my devout penance been 
crowned with success, for I bow unto thy feet, which have 
been worshipped by the celestials. This my kingdom, these 

* As it ii impossible to hold the wind in a short compass so it was im. 
poss ible to bind Ravana aud lead him captive. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


my sons, this my wife and myself are all at thy disposal- 
do thou order me, O Brahman, what I may do for thee." 
Thereupon having enquired of the king about his piety, 
offerings and the well-being of his sons, Pulastya said to 
Arjuna, the king of Haihayas : — "O foremost of kings, O 
thou having eyes like lotus-petals ! O thou having a count- 
enance like the full moon ! When thou hast vanquished 
Ravana, thy prowess is matchless in the triple world. Thou 
hast bound up my invincible son in the conflict at whose fear 
the wind and the ocean stand still. Having drunk up the 
glories of my son thou hast announced thine own ; so I do 
say, O my son, do thou release Dacanana." Hearing this 
cpmmand c?f Pulastya, the king Arjuna did not utter a single 
world and set, most delightedly the king of Rakshasas, free. 
Having released that foe of the celestiAls,worshipped him with 
celestial ornaments and garlands and established friendship 
.removing all enmities with Ravana before fire, and 
bowed unto Pulastya, the son of Brahma, he repaired to his 
pwn house. And being released by the influence of Pulastya, 
the highly powerful Dacanana, the king of Rakshasas, 
accepted his hospitality and being embraced by him, return- 
ed home ashamed. And having set Dacagriva at liberty 
Pulastya, the son of Brahma and the foremost of Munis 
repaired to the celestial region. O Rama, in this wise, the 
highly powerful Ravana was defeated by Arjuna and releas- 
ed by Pulastya. Observe therefore, O descendant of Raghu, 
there is a mightier man than the mighty ; therefore, one, 
desirous of his own well-being, should not disregard another. 
Having acquired friendship with the thousand-armed Arjun^, 
DacAnana, the king of Rakshasas.began again to journey over 
the world distressing the kings. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




^ELEASED by Arjuna, and yet not conceiving any shame, 
RAvana, the king of Rikshasas again began to traverse the 
earth, R&kshasas or men, of whom the proud RAvana heard 
to be powerful he used to appoach and summon them 
for fight. After some time he arrived at the city of 
Kishkindha reared by Vali and invited him, wearing golden 
garland, to fight. Thereat, TSLra, her father Sushena 
and the Prince Sugriva said to the king of 
Rlkshasas — " O lord of Rakshasas, he is not present here, 
who shall be able to withstand thee. What monkey else 
is capable of standing before thee ? However, O Rivana, V§li 
shall soon return after performing the Sandhyi rites at the 
confluence of the four oceans ; therefore wait here for a 
moment. Behold, O Da^Snana, there lie the bones of all 
those, like conch, who came ere this to fight with the power- 
ful king of monkeys. O R3Lvana, O RSkshasa, even if thou 
hast drunk nectar, thou shalt at this very moment loose thy 
life, when the encounter with V&li shall take place. O 
Vaisravana, do thou observe the variegated universe now— 
wait for a moment after which it will be hard for thee to 
keep thy life. Or if thou dost wish to meet with death do 
thou speedily repair to the southern ocean and thou shalt 
behold there V2tli like unto fire placed on earth." Hearing 
those words, Rlvana, the aggrandiser of the triple world, 
remonstrated with Tiri and ascending his flowery car went 
to the southern ocean and espied Vali, having red counte- 
nance like the rising sun, engaged in SandhyS rites with 
whole-mindedness. Thereupon having descended from his 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

*686 RAM AY AN A. 

Pushpaka car he with silent steps approached Vali to bring 

him under his grasp. Casting his looks at pleasure, Vali saw 

him. Albeit apprised of his evil intention, he was not the 

least moved. And he did not care for him as a lion is not 

moved on beholding a hare and Garuda on beholding 

a serpent. He then thought within himself— "This vicious- 

souled Ravana is approaching to catch me ; holding him 

under my arm pit I shall journey over the three great oceans. 

Everyone will behold the enemy Ravana, under my arm pit 

as a serpent possessed by Garuda, with his thighs, arms and 

clothes loosened." Having thought thus Vali remained silent 

for sometime and reciting incantations he waited there like 

a mountain. Thereupon the king of monkeys and the 

lord of Rakshasas, proud of strength, essayed to catch one 

another. Vali was seated with his back (towards Ravana) ; 

still from his footsteps he perceived that he had come within 

the grasp of Ravana's army and he at once caught hold of 

him like unto Garuda holding a serpent. Getting hold of 

Ravana, the lord of Rakshasas, desirous of catching him, 

(Vali) and placing him under his arm-pit Vali vehemently 

rose high up in the welkin. And he went away carrying 

him, scratching him again and again with his snails like 

unto winds scattering clouds. The Ten-necked demon being 

thus carried away, his councillors, to release him, pursued, 

exlaiming,Vali, in the welkin. They thus following him, Vali, 

appeared in the sky like the sun in the midst of clouds. The 

Rakshasas could not catch Vali but were rather exhausted 

by the stroke of his arms and thighs. What to speak of 

animals made of flesh and blood anxious for their lives even 

the mountains make way when Vali goes. Rising high np 

into the sky where even the birds cannot reach, Vali, the 

lord of monkeys and gifted wirh great velocity, by and by 

finished his Sandhya rites above the oceans. Being 

worshipded by the aerials their lord, with Ravana, first 

proceeded to the western ocean. And having finished 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


there Sandhyi prayers and recited incantations he, with 
Daf&nana, went to the northern ocean. And having 
journeyed over many thousand leagues that huge monkey, 
with his enemy! finished his prayers there and then proceeded 
to the eastern ocean. And having recited his prayers there 
also, Vili, the son of Indra, and the king of monkeys, 
carrying R&vana, returned to the city of Kishkindha. Having 
gooe through his Sandhyi rites at the four oceans and 
carrying R&vana, that monkey-chief was greatly exhausted 
and (therefore)descended into the gardens of KishkindhS. 
Having got out R&vana from his arm-pit, the foremost of 
monkeys, laughing again and again said : — " Whence art 
thou coming?" Thereupon being surprised greatly, Da£&- 
nana, the king of R&kshasas, with eyes, shaking with 
exhaustion, said to the king of monkeys : — " O king of 
monkeys, resembling Mahendra, I am R&vana, the king of 
Rakshasas ; I came here to fight : but I have beeen defeated 
by thee. Alas ! What strength is thine ! what prowess !! What 
gravity !!! Holding me like a beast thou hast journeyed over 
the four oceans. O hero ! What heroic wight is there who 
is not exhausted by carrying me so vehemenly ? O monkey, 
mind, wind and Garuda — these three are gifted with the 
velocity. Undoubtedly thou hast got the same velocity. 
Thy prowess hath been sufficiently displayed. But now 
I wish, O king of monkeys, to make friends with thee for ever 
before fire. O king of monkeys, from to-day, wife, sons, 
city, kingdom, enjoyment, cloth and food shall be our 
common." Thereupon having lighted up fire the king of 
monkeys and the king of R&kshasas, embracing each other, 
became friends. Thereupon holding each other by the 
arms they entered the city of Kishkindhi like unto two lions, 
entering delightedly a cave. There like Sugriva R&vana 
spent a month. Afterwards his councillors, desirous of des- 
troying the triple world, took him away. O lord R&ma, I 
have thus related to thee the previous history. Having 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


thus belaboured Ravana Vali at last made friends with him 
before fire. O Rama, Vali had unequalled and great strength. 
Like unto fire burning down locusts thou didst burn down 



J_ HEREUPON Rama, being stricken with curiosity, with 
folded palms and humbly accosted Agastya, residing in the 
southern quarter, with pregnant accents, saying : — " Thou 
sayest that Ravana and Vali had unequalled strength but 
methinks theirs can not equal that of Hanuman. Heroism, 
liberality, strength, patience, intellect, knowledge of laws 
and means, prowess and energy all exist together in Hanu- 
man. When the monkey host lost heart on beholding the 
ocean, Hanuman, consoling crossed over the deep extending 
over a hundred leagues. Having discerated the presiding 
goddess of Lanka and on beholding Sita there, he consoled 
her. What to speak of more, Hanuman, single-handed, 
slew Ravana's commander-in-chief, the minister's son, his 
servants and his one son. Being released from the Brahma 
weapon Hanuman remonstrated with Ravana, and reduced 
Lanka into ashes like unto fire burning down earth. What I 
have seen myself performed by Hanuman in the conflict is 
above the power of Kala, Vasava and even the lord of riches* 
It is by the strength of the arms of that Wind-god's* son I have 
obtained Lanka, Sita, Lakshmana, Victory, kingdom and 
my friends. What more, had not Hanuman, the friend of 
the king of monkeys — Sugriva, been in my company who 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


could have brought Site's intelligence ? Why did not HanumSLn, 
although wishing welfare unto Sugriva, reduce V&li to ashes like 
so many creepers on the occasion of his quarrel with Sugriva ? 
Methtnks, Hanum&n was not cognisant of his own prowess 
then ? And therefore he did stoop to witness the miseries 
of Sugriva — the king of monkeys who was dearer than his 
life. O thou worshipped of the immortals, do thou truly 
describe unto me this action of Hanum&n." Hearing those 
well-meaning words of R&ghava, the ascetic Agastya said to 
him in the presence of Hanum&n. "O foremost of Raghus, 
what, thou hast said regarding Hanumftn, is all true. As 
regards, strength, velocity and intellect there is none who 
can equal Hanum&n. O represser of enemies, in the days of 
yore Hanum&n was imprecated by the ascetics, whose curses 
never become fruitless, to the effect that he would never be 
conscious of his whole strength. I am not capable of describing 
to thee the wondrous childish feat which Hanum&n did 
perform in his boyhood. But if thou art, O R&ghava, greatly 
anxious to hear it, I shall relate — do thou hear with a quiescent 
mind. Hanum£n's father Keshari reigned in the mountain 
Sumeru which resembles gold by the influence of the sun. 
Keshari had a well-known wife by the name of AnjanSL to whom 
he was greatly attached. The deity Wind begot on AnjanSi an 
excellent son. Repairing to a dense forest for collecting 
fruits, the excellent damsel gave birth to Hanum&n resembl- 
ing the tip of a Sala tree and went away. Being distressed 
with hunger on account of the absence of the mother, 
H^numSn, just born, cried like Kartikeya, the commandcr-in- 
•liief of the celestials, in the forest of Saras, At this time 
the sun resembling Yavd flowers, having risen, HanumSin, 
to get a fruit, sprang up. Being desirous of holding the 
newly risen sun, Hanum&n, resembling it, began to leap in 
the middle of the welkin. The child HanumSn having thus 
ascended the sky, celestials, Danavas and Yakshas surprising- 
ly exclaimed "The velocity, with which Marut's son is going, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1690 RAM AY AN A. 

is not possessed even by the Wind, Garuda and mind. If he 
has got such vehemence in his boyhood what great strength 
he shall have in his youth." His own son thus leaping, the 
wind, becoming cool by the touch of snow, began to follow 
him proceeding in the sky lest the rays of the sun might 
scorch him. Rising high up in the sky on account of childish 
freaks and traversed many thousand leagues by the help of 
his father Hanuman neared the sun. Considering that he 
was a mere child and therefore not tarnished by any sin and 
that a great divine work would be accomplished by him in 
future the sun did not burn Hanuman. At the every day 
when Hanuman sprang up to hold the sun, Rahu too essayed 
to possess him. Having reached the top of the sun's car 
Hanuman touched Rahu ; so he, the represser of the moon's 
rays, accordingly went back on beholding the sun thus 
possessed. And repairing to the house of Indra, Sinhika's 
son, in wrath and with frowns, said to him encircled by the 
celestials : — "O Vasava ! O slayer of Bala and Vitra — to 
remove my hunger thou didst give me both the sun and moon ; 
why thou hast then given them to another ? On account 
of the Parva I came to devour the sun but another Rahu 
came and possessed him." Hearing the words of Rahu, 
the King of the deities, wearing a golden garland, having 
his understanding bewildered, proceeded, on the back of 
his elephant-chief Airavat, huge like the summit of the 
Kailasa hill, with temporal juice always trickling, having 
four tusks, roaring, and adorned with golden bells, towards 
Hanuman and the sun with Rahu before him. Having left 
behind Indra, Rahu quickly went there but fled away o* 
beholding the huge-bodied Hanuman resembling a mountain 
summit. Thereupon leaving aside the sun and being desirous 
of holding Rahu, the son of Sinhika considering him as a 
fruit, Hanuman again sprang up into the sky. Beholding 
Hanuman approach renouncing the sun, Rahu with his 
countenance only visible, desisted and went back. And 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

UTTA RA KA NDA Af. 1 69 1 

considering Indra as the saviour he again and again cried 
aloud "Indra! Indra !!" Understanding everything by the 
piteous accents of Rahu Indra said, "No fear, I shall soon 
slay him." Thereupon beholding the huge-bodied Airavat and 
considering him as a bigger fruit Maruti ran towards him. 
Proceeding thus tempestuously when he rose above the head 
of Indra, Han uman, looked in a moment dreadful like the fire 
of dissolution. But not greatly enraged the thousand-eyed 
lord of Sachi, with the thunder-bolt in his hand, struck the 
running Hanuman. Belaboured by the thunder-bolt of Indra 
Hanuman fell down and broke his left jaw. He being thus 
overwhelmed by the stroke of Indra's thunder-bolt, the 
Wind-god became displeased with the king of celestials and 
was determined upon bringing about mischief unto all created 
beings. The all-comprehending wind, not spreading him- 
self, entered into a cave with his son. Like unto Vasava 
distressing all creatures by putting a stop to the showers, 
the wind too put all animals into unbearable suffering by 
obstructing all execrations. On account of the anger of the 
Wind-god their breath was completely obstructed, and the 
joints — as if pierced, became hard as wood. S&dhya 
Vaiatkdr and all the religious observances of the triple world 
were put a stop to by the anger of the Wind-god. So the 
three world appeared as if stricken with sorrow. Thereupon 
the afflicted celestials, Gandharbas, Asuras and men repaired 
to the Patriarch Brahma with a view to bring about the 
well-being of created beings. And with their bellies swollen 
for the obstruction of the wind the celestials with folded 
hands said : — "O lord of created beings, thou hast created 
four classes of beings and thou hast given us wind to preserve 
our lives. But we do not know, why the wind, the lord of 
our beings, is distressing us, by obstructing our movements like 
unto females confined in an inner apartment. Being thus 
distressed by the wind we have come to seek thy shelter, 
thou the remover of miseries — do thou remove our afflicj- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1692 RAM AY ANA. 

tions consequent upon the obstruction of the wind." Hearing 

those words of the created beings, their lord (the Patriarch 

Brahma) again said "Hear, why the wind, being enraged, 

has obstructed the course of all beings. Hearing the words 

of Rahu, Indra, the king of the celestials, hath belaboured 

the Wind-god's son. It is for this that he hath been offended. 

Preserving the bodied, the wind, having no person, passes 

through them all. Without wind the body becomes like 

wood. Therefore the wind constitutes the life, the happiness 

and the whole universe. Renouncing the wind the world 

cannot attain to happiness. Being cast off by the wind and 

having their breaths obstructed, behold, the world, to-day 

appeareth like dried wood. Let us therefore go there where 

the wind, the giver of our afflictions, waiteth. If we do not 

please the son of Aditi we shall all meet with destruction," 

Thereupon the Patriarch Brahma, the celestials, Gandharbas, 

serpents, Guhyakas and other created beings went where the 

wind was waiting with his own son belaboured by the king of 

the celestials. Thereupon beholding that boy, on the lap of 

the Wind-God,resembling gold and Baisvanar,the four-mouthed 

Brahma, the celestials, Gandharbas, Rishis, Yakshas and 

• Rakshasas were all moved with pity. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



11 EARING the whole history, Rama, the discendant of 
Raghu, said to Agastya " O Reverend Sir, Riksharaja is the 
name of the father of Vali and Sugriva but thou hast not told 
me the name of their mother. However I am curious to 
learn who was their mother where was their residence and 
how they had been named so— do thou favour me with 
the account." Rama having said this Agastya said: — "O 
Rama, I shall relate to thee everything in short of what 
I had heard from Narada when he came to my hermitage. 
Once on a time whilst travelling that highly pious ascetic 
arrived at my hermitage ; I duly worshipped and welcomed 
him ; and when I asked him out of curiosity, he, seated at 
pleasure, said :— " Hear, O great ascetic, the foremost of 
the pious ; there is a mountain named Meru, higly picture- 
sque, made of gold and greatly charming. The middle 
peak is much liked by the celestials, on which is situate the 
beautiful assemblage hall of Brahma extending over a hundred 
leagues. The four-mouthed deity, sprung from lotus, always 
resideth there. And from his eyes while going through the 
Yoga practices tears trickled down. No sooner the Patriarch 
Brahma, with his hands, wiped them off into the ground 
than a monkey originated from those tears. O foremost of 
men, as soon as that monkey was produced, the high-souled 
Brahma consoled him in sweet accents and said — "Do thou 
proceed to that leading mountain where the celestials 
perpetually reside. O foremost of monkeys, living upon 
many a fruit and root in that picturesque mountain thou 
shouldst always live by me. And while thou shall live in 
this wise for some time thou shalt be crowned with auspicious- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 

1694 RAM AY AN A. 

ness." Brahma having said this, O RSghava, the foremost 
of monkeys saluted that god of gods, placing his head at his 
feet and said to that Primaeval deity, the creator of beings 
and the lord of the universe. "O god, thou art me 
under thy behests — verily I shall follow them." Having said 
this to Patriarch that monkey immediately went to a forest 
abounding in fruits and flowers. There living on fruits and 
collecting honey and various flowers, he, every day, used 
to come to Brahma in the evening. O Rama, in this 
wise he used to make an offering of excellent fruits and 
flowers at the feet of Brahma, the god of gods. Journeying 
in this way over the mountain he spent many long years. 
Some time having elapsed in this way, O Raghava,Riksharaja r 
the foremost of monkeys,being distressed with thirst, repaired 
to the excellent mountain Meru. There is a pond of pure 
water, resonant with the notes of various birds. Having 
shaken his manes with a delighted heart, Riksharaja saw his 
reflection in the waters. Beholding his own image there 
that monkey-chief, stricken with anger and anxiety 
thought — "What arch-enemy of mine is living in the waters ? 
I shall destroy the excellent abode of the vicious-souled one." 
Thinking thus within himself, that monkey, out of fickleness, 
jumped down into the lake. And he again sprang up there- 
from. And at the time of rising, O Rama, that leading 
monkey found himself metamorphosed into a female form, 
which was highly charming, graceful and beautiful. Her 
waist was spacious, eye-brows beautiful and hairs were black 
and curling ; her countenance was beautiful and smiling, 
breast high and beauty matchless. And there appeared 
charming on the banks of the lake, lighting up all quarters that 
female, agitating the mind of all, and beautiful in the triple 
world like unto simple Sastilatd, Rama, without lotus, pure 
rays of the moon, Parvati more beautiful than even Lakshmi. 
At this time was returning by that way, Indra, the leader of 
the celestials after having worshipped the feet of Brahma. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

UTTA RA KA NDA J/. 1 69 «> 

And the sun too journeying arrived there. They both 
simultaneously espied that female form and were possessed 
by desire. What more, their whole body, as soon as they 
saw her, was moved and the firmness of the mind shaken. 
Thereupon Indra begot on her a son named Vali for he 
originated from her hairs and the sun begot on her another 
son, who was named Sugriva for he originated from her neck. 
Thus the two highly powerful monkeys being born, Indra went 
hack to his region having conferred upon Vali an un-ending 
garland of gold. And having engaged Hanuman, the Wind- 
god's son in the service of Sugriva, the sun too went back to 
the sky. O king, the sun having risen after that night 
Rikshaxaja again obtained his own real monkey shape. 
Having thus regained his monkey form he made his two 
highly powerful sons, — leading monkeys, assuming shapes at 
will and having twany eyes, drink honey like nectar.* 
Thereupon taking them, he came to the abode of Brahma. 
Beholding his son Riksharaja with his sons, Brahma, the 
grand-father of the celestials, consoled him in diverse ways. 
Then he ordered the celestial messenger saying — "At my 
behest, O emissary, do thou proceed to the highly picturesque 
city of Kishkindha. That golden, big and charming city is 
worthy of Riksharaja. There live many thousand monkeys 
besides others assuming shapes at will. It abounds in various 
jewels, invincible, is inhabited by four Varnas> holy and 
sacred. At my command Viswakarma has constructed the 
celestial and picturesque city of Kishkindha. Do thou place 
there Riksharaja, the foremost of monkeys, with his sons ; 
and having invited the leading monkeys and others and 
received them courteously do thou install him on the throne. 
On beholding this monkey-chief, gifted with intelligence they 
shall be all subject to him." Brahma, having said this, the 
celestial emissary, with Riksharaja before him, proceeded to 
the highly picturesque city of Kishkindha. And having 
entered there with the velocity of the wind, he, at the com- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1696 RAM AY AN A. 

mand of the Patriarch, crowned the leading monkey Rik«ha- 
raja as king. And being sprinkled according to the 
ceremonies of installation, and adorned with a crown and 
various other ornaments he, with a delighted heart, engaged 
in governing the monkeys. All the monkey, residing on earth 
consisting of seven insular continents and bounded by 
ocean, came under his subjection. Thus Riksharaja was 
both the father and mother of Vali and Sugriva. May good 
betide thee. The learned who listen to and make others 
hear this story, conducing to the enhancement of their de- 
light, get all their desires and objects accomplished. I 
have duty described to thee at length all events and have 
recounted the stories relating to the birth of the Kings of 
monkeys and Rakahsasas. 


XXEARING this excellent Pauranic theme in the company 
of his brothers, Raghava was greatly surprised. Thereupon 
hearing the words of the Rishi he said*:—" By thy favour I have 
listened to the highly sacred theme. O foremost of Munis, 
I was greatly worked up with curiosity in this matter. 1 am 
not the least surprised to learn, O twice-born one, that those 
two sons of the celestials would be two highly powerful leading 
monkeys since their origin is divine." Rama having said this 
Agastya said :— "O thou having long arms, thus in the days 
of yore the birth of Vali and Sugriva was brought about 
king, I shall now again relate to thee another divine theme. 
O Rama I shall now describe to thee why did Ravana steal 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Sita. Do thou hear it attentively. O Rama, in the golden 
age, having bowed unto the Patriarch's son, the truthful Rishi 
Sanatkumar, highly effulgent, resplandent like unto the sun, 
shining in his native brilliance and seated at his own place, 
Rlvana, the lord of R&kshasas, said : — "Who is now amongst 
the celestials brave and powerful, by whose help the 
celestials can vanquish their enemies and whom the twice- 
born ones daily worship and the devotees meditate upon. 
O thou having piety for wealth, O thou gifted vith six sorts 
of wealth, do thou describe this to me kindly." Being 
apprised of Rivana's intention, the saint Sanatkumar, who saw 
every thing through his devotion, said to him out of 
love — " Hear my son. The learned duly, in their sacrifices, 
worship that Hari, respected of people and drinking nectar, 
who is the lord of the universe, whose origin we do not 
know, who is daily worshipped by the celestials and Asuras, 
who is highly powerful N&rSyana from whose navel has spurng 
Brahmi, the creator of the world, and who has created the 
universe consisting of mobile and immobile beings. The 
Yogis maditate upon him and celebrate sacrifices in his 
honor according to the Puranas, Vedas, Panchardtra and 
and other rituals. He always vanquisheth in encounter Daityas 
Dinavas, RAkshasas and all other enemies of the celestials 
and every one of them worships him." Hearing those 
words of the great ascetic Sanatkumar, RSvana, the lord of 
Rikshasas, bowing, replied : — "Being slain by Hari to what 
station do the Daityas, Danavas and R&kshasas attain ? And 
why doth Hari destroy them ? " Whereto Sanatkumar 
replied : — " Whoever are slain by the celestials do eternally 
reside in their region. And being banished therefrom, they 
again take their birth on earth. Thus by the misery and 
happiness acquired in their pristine existence, they go 
through births and deaths. O king, all the monarchs, slain 
by Janarddana,holding discus and the lord of the triple world, 
attained to his own region ; even his anger becomcth like a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1698 RAM AY AN A. 

boon." Hearing those words given vent to by the great 
ascetic Sanatkumar the night-ranger Ravana, being worked 
up with delight and surprise, began to meditate how he should 
enter into conflict with Hari. 


J_ HE vicious-souled Ravana thinking thus the great 
ascetic again gave vent to accents. " O thou having long 
arms, what thou hast desired in thy mind shall be encom- 
passed in the great encounter. Be thou happy and wait 
for some time." Hearing this the long-armed (Ravana) 
again said to the ascetic . — " Do thou tell me at length what 
are his marks." Hearing the words of the lord of Rakshasas, 
the ascetic replied : — " Hearken, I shall relate to thee every 
thing, O foremost of Rakshasas. That great deity pervadeth 
all, is minute, invisible ever-existing, and manifest over the 
universe consisting of mobile and immobile creations. He 
is present in the celestial region, in the earth, in the region 
underneath the earth, on the mountains, in the forests, in all 
stationary objects, in all rivers and in all cities. He is Om, 
truth, Sabitri and earth. He is known as the deity Dhara- 
dhara (holder of earth) and Ananta. He is day, night,* 
morning and evening, Yama, the moon, Kala, the wind, 
Brahma, Rudra, Indra and Water. He makes the world 
manifest and shine ; he creates them, destroys them and 
governs them. He sporteth, is eternal, the lord of men, 
Vishnu, Purana and the only destroyer of the world. What 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


r the use of speaking more, O Das&nana, He comprehends 
the three worlds, the mobile and immobile. Wearing a 
tcIIow raiment like unto the filaments of lotus, N£r£yana, 
resembling dark-blue lotus in colour, is resplendant like unto 
clouds in the welkin accompanied by lightning. And 
covering his person, Lakshmi, in the shape of warfare, lies 
stationed in his body like unto lightning in the clouds. The 
rrlestials, Asuras or N&gas — none is capable of casting his 
looks upon him. He alone can see him with whom he is 
pleased, O my son ; neither by the fruits of sacrifices, asceti- 
cism, self-control, gifts, sacrifices, nor by anything else can 
one behold the Illustrious Deity. Those alone can see 
Him, who have devoted themselves, their life and being, unto 
Him and who, by virtue of discriminative knowledge, have 
got their sins burnt If thou art willing to behold him. hear, 
if thou dost like, I shall describe everything at length. At 
the end of the golden age and the beginning of Treta Yuga 
the deity Nlr£yana shall assume a human form for the 
benefit of men and celestials. A son by the name of Rama 
shall be born unto Dasaratha, of the Ikswaka race who 
•hall govern earth. R&ma shall be highly effulgent, highly 
powerful and in patience like unto earth — and the enemies 
in the encounter shall not be able to eye him as they cannot 
the sun. In this wise the lord NSrayana shall appear in a 
human form. At the behest of his sire, the pious and the 
high-minded R&ma shall sojourn in the forest of Dandaka 
in the company of his brother. His spouse the gracious 
Lakfhmi, shall be celebrated under the appellation of SiUL 
She will be born as the daughter of Janaka,the king of MithilS, 
and will come out of earth. In beauty she shall be matchless on 
earth and be gifted with auspicious marks and shall always 
follow R£ma like a shadow as the rays follow tho moon. She 
will be graced with a good conduct, chaste and patient ; and 
SitS and R2ma shall always appear together like the rays of 
the sun. R^vana, I have thus related to you everything about 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1700 RAM AY AN A, 

the Narayana, the great Brahman, eternal and incomprehensi- 
ble." O Raghava, hearing those words, the highly powerful 
lord of Rakshasas began to concert plans for entering into 
conflict with thee. Meditating again and again over Sanat- 
kumar's words and delighted he began to journey for battle. ,, 
Hearing those words,Rama,with his eyes expanded in surprise, 
was greatly wondered. And being delighted he again said 
to Agastya, the foremost of the wise : — "Do thou recount the 
ancient stories." 



J_ HE highly effulgent and illustrious Agastya,sprung from 
a vessel, again addressed the humble Rama as the great 
Patriarch sprung from lotus spoke unto the Great Deity. 
He said to Rama, having truth for his prowess : — "Do thou 
hear." Saying this, the highly effulgent Agastya began to 
narrate the last portion of the story. The high-minded saint, 
with a delighted heart, described unto Rama all he had heard 
and narrated." O high-minded Rama, having long arms, it is 
for this reason that the vicious-souled Ravana stole away 
Janaki, the daughter of king Janaka. O thou having long 
arms ! O thou of many glories ! O thou invincible ! Narada. 
recounted this storyunto me on the summit of the mountain- 
chief Meru. O Raghava,the highly effulgent one narrated unto 
me the last portion of this story in the presence of the 
celestials, Gandharbas, Siddhas, ascetics and other great men. 
O lord of kings, O conferrer of honors, do thou listen to that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


story which rcmoveth monstrous iniquity. Hearing this, 
O thou having long arms, the Rishis, and the celestials with 
delighted hearts, said to the ascetic Narada "He who shall 
reverentially listen to this story every day, shall be blessed 
with sons and grandsons and be honored in the region of the 


X HEREUPON being desirous of achieving victories, 
Ravana, the lord of Rakshasas, proud of his strength, began 
to journey over the earth in the company of the heroic 
Rakshasas. Whoever, amongst the Daityas, Danavas and 
Rakshasis was reported to him as being powerful he used to 
invite for battle. O king of earth, having thus traversed the 
whole world, the ten-necked demon saw the saint Narada 
returning to his own region from Brahmaloka. Like the 
second sun he was proceeding through the clouds. Ravana, 
with a delighted heart, neared him and addressed the celestial 
saint Narada with folded palms, saying : — " O thou gifted with 
six sorts of wealth, thou hast seen many a time all creations 
from Brahma down to an insect. Do thou tell me, O great 
one, the inhabitants of which, world are more 
powerful ? I wish to fight with them according to my desire." 
Whereto, thinking for a moment, the celestial saint Narada 
replied: — "O king, there is an insular continent near the 
milky ocean. AH the inhabitants that live there are gifted 
with strength— effulgent like the rays of the moon, huge- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 

iyo2 RAM AY AN A. 

bodied,highly powerful and have a voice deep as the muttering 
of the clouds. They are all greatly beautiful, patient and 
have huge arms. king of Rakshasas, I have seen in 
Swetadwipa such powerful men, as thou dost want to see 
on this earth." Hearing the words of Narada, Ravana said : — 
"0 celestial saint, why are the inhabitants of Swetadwipa 
powerful ? And how did those high-souled ones come to 
live there ? O lord, do thou relate to me everything at length. 
Thou dost observe the whole universe like a myrobalam in 
in thy palms. " Hearing the words of Ravana, the celestial 
saint said : — "O lord of Rakshasas, the inhabitants of 
Swetadwipa are perpetually devoted unto Narayana with 
whole-mi ndedness and earnestly worship Him. They have 
always their hearts and minds devoted unto Him and are all 
high-souled. Having rendered their lives and souls unto 
Narayana, they have been blessed with their abode in Sweta- 
dwipa. Those, who are slain in the encounter with his bow 
bent by Vishnu — the holder of discus and the preserver of the 
world, attain to the celestial region. Neither by sacrifice, 
devout penance, self-control nor excellent gifts may be 
obtained the celestial region full of bliss." Hearing the 
words of Narada, the Ten necked demon was worked up 
with surprise and meditating for some time said " h shall 
enter into conflict with him." Thereupon inviting Narada 
he proceeded to Swetadwipa. Thinking for a long time and 
being curious to witness that wondrous encounter, Narada 
speedily went there. He was ever fond of sport and warfare. 
Filling all the quarters with dreadful leonine roars Ravana with 
all the Rakshasas moved towards the Swetadwipa. After 
Narada had reached there, the illustrious Dacanana went to 
that insular continent beyond even the reach of the celestials. 
Being struck by the radiant heat of that insular continent, 
the Puspaka car, of the mighty Ravana, could not standi there 
like clouds scattered by the wind. Having arrived at that 
dreadful insular continent the councillors of the lord of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Rikshasas, fearfully said to Ravana. "0 lord, we are all 
ftsptfied and beside ourselves with fear. We cannot any 
Wv stand here ; how shall we fight ?" Saying this the 
Rikshasas fled away into all directions. And Da^anana too 
tent away his golden car Pushpaka with them. Having thus 
sent away his chariot and assuming a dreadful figure he alone 
entered Swetadwipa. At the time of his entering he was 
icen by the females there. One of them holding him by the 
hand and smiling said "Why hast thou come hither ? Who 
art thou ? who is thy father? and what for hast thou come here ? 
Do thou definitely say." Hearing those words, O king, 
Rlvana, in anger said : — "I am the son of the ascetic Visrava, 
I am Ravana by name ; I have come hither being desirous 
of fighting ; but I do not behold anyone here." The vicious- 
tooled Ravana having said this all the young damsels laughed 
gently. But one of them, being enraged, took up Ravana, 
like a child, as if in sport and hurled him amongst her 
companions. And addressing another she said : — "Behold, 
1 have caught this black Ravana, having twenty arms and 
ten faces, like a small insect. Thereupon Ravana, being 
worn out with hurling, passed from one one hand to another. 
Being thus hurled the learned and powerful Ravana, in anger, 
severely bit the palms of that fair one. Being overwhelmed 
with pain that damsel let him off. Thereupon, another, 
taking that Rakshasa-chief, rose up in the welkin. Ravana, 
again waxing wroth tore her with his nails. And being 
left off by that damsel, the terrified night-ranger fell down 
into the waters of the deep. The females, inhabiting that 
insular continent again and again in this wise hurled Ravana. 
Beholding him thus distressed the highly effulgent Narada 
danced in joy and surprise. O.thou having long arms, being 
apprised of this, the vicious-souled Ravana stole away Sita 
with a view to meet death at thy hands. Thou art Narayana, 
holding discus, conch and club ; thou hast in thy hands the 
bow, a lotus, thunder-bolt and other weapons ; thou art 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i;04 RAM AY AN A. 

worshipped of all deities ; thou art graced with the mystic 
mark Sribatsa,. adored by all celestials, hast a lotus navel, 
art a great ascetic, and Hrishikesha declaring fearlessness 
unto all devotees. Thou hast assumed a human form to bring 
about the destruction of Ravana. Dost thou not recognise 
thyself as Narayana ? O great one, do not forget thyself ; 
do thou recollect thy real self. The Patriarch Brahma said 
that thou art subtler than the subtle. Thou art the the three 
qualities, the three Vedas and the regions — that of the 
celestials, of the mortals and the region under the earth. 
Thy work is manifest in time, past, present and future ; thou 
art the observer of three Vedas and the destroyer of the 
enemies of the celestials. With thy three steps, thou didst, 
in the days of yore, traverse the three worlds. Thou wert 
born of Aditi, as the youngest brother of Indra for binding 
Bali. Thou art the eternal Vishnu. To extend thy favours 
unto humanity thou hast been born as man. O foremost of 
the celestials, the work of the deities hath been accom- 
plished. The vicious Ravana, with his sons and relatives, 
hath been slain. The Rishis, having piety for their wealth 
and all the deities have been pleased. O foremost of 
gods — all this hath been brought about by thy favours ; 
and the whole universe hath been pacified. Sita is the very 
personation of Lakshmi, sprung from earth. It is for thee 
that she hath been born in the race of Janaka. Bringing 
her into Lanka Ravana protected her with care like his 
mother. Rama, I have thus related to thee the entire 
story. Hearing this from the Rishi Sanatkumar, the long- 
lived Narada described this unto me. Dacanana, to a 
letter I followed the instructions of Sanatkumar. Who ever 
listens to this story at the time of Sraddha, the rice, offered 
by him, becoming, inexhaustible, reaches his manes. " Hear- 
ing this celestial theme, the lotus-eyed Rama along with 
his brothers was greatly surprised. And having their eyes 
expanded with delight the monkeys, with Sugriva, the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Rlkshasas with Bibhishana, the kings with their councillors, 
and all other assembled pious Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, 
and Sadras, delightedly espied R&ma. Thereupon the highly 
effulgent Agastya said to RSma : — "0 Rama, we have all 
seen thee and been honoured ; now we shall depart." Say- 
ing this, they, being honored, repaired to their respective 
habitations. The sun set, Rama, the foremost of men, gave 
farewell to monkeys and their king and duly went through the 
Sandhyi rite. Gradually night set in and he entered the 
inner appartment. 



JUCUTSTHA, knowing himself, being thus duly installed, 
the first night,enhancing the delight of the citizens, was spent. 
At dawn, the prisoners, to wake up the king, arrived at the 
palace. And those songsters, well trained and having a 
musical voice like the Kinnaras, began to eulogize the heroic 
king, to the increase of his joy. "Awake, O gentle hero, 
increasing Kausalyi's joy, O foremost of men. Thyself being 
asleep the whole universe will be laid up with sleep. In 
prowess thou art like Vishnu,in beauty thou art like two Aswins, 
in intellect thou art like Vrihaspati and in the capacity of 
governing thou art like the Patriarch Brahma. Thy patience 
equals that of earth, thy effulgence equals that of the sun, thy 
velocity equals the wind and thy gravity resembles the deep. 
Thou art stable like a stake, gentle like the moon. No king 
like thee had flourished before — no other shall follow. O 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1706 RAM AY AN A. 

foremost of men, thou art irrepressible, ever pious and 
engaged in bringing about welfare unto thy subjects. Fame 
and wealth shall never renounce thee. O Kakutstha, in thee 
are perpetually stationed grace and wealth." Thus did the 
panegyrists eulogise him in various sweet accents and RSghava 
got up. Like unto Hari rising up from the bed of serpents 
Rama, thus eulogized, rose up from his bed covered with a 
a white coverlet. Taking white vessels full of water, 
thousands of well-trained survitors stood waiting before the 
high-souled (Rama). Washing his mouth, being purified and 
offering oblation unto fire, he entered the holy room of the 
tutelary deity much honored by the Ikshwakus. And there 
having worshipped duly the celestials, manes and the 
Brahmins, he, encircled by men,came to the outer appartment. 
And there arrived the leading priests headed by Vasishtha 
and ministers all resplendant like unto fire. And there sat 
around Rama the Kashatrya kings hailing from various 
provinces as the celestials sit encircling their lord Indra. 
The illustrious Bharata, Lakshmana and Satrughna began to 
worship him and he appeared like a sacrifice conducted by 
Vedic hymns. And the servants, with their eyes shut, sat 
around him. The twenty heroic monkeys headed by the 
highly powerful Sugriva also began to worship him. As the 
Guhyakas worship Kuvera so Bibhishana, accompanied by 
four R&kshasas, waited upon him. All those who were 
advanced in the study of Vedas, born in respectable families, 
and learned, bowed unto the king lowering their heads. 
Like unto the celestial-king Indra worshipped by the saints 
the king Rama was being perpetually honored by the effulgent 
saints, kings, monkeys, and Rakshasas. He appeared more 
beautiful than Indra at that time. And religious themes were 
recited in that assembly by persons conversant with the know- 
ledge of Puranas. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X HUS did the long-armed R£ma spend his days looking 
into all administrative works relating to the city and 
provinces. Some days having elapsed, he, with folded hands, 
said to Janaka, the king of Mithila, "Thou art our only 
refuge — we have been reared by thee and by the help of thy 
dreadful prowess we have been able to destroy Ravana. 
O king, the relation between the families of Ikshwaku and 
Mithila, Is unequalled and delightful. Taking the jewel, do 
thou proceed to thy own city and Bharata as a help shall 
follow thee." Saying "so be it" the king Janaka bespoke 
Rama "O king, I have been delighted with seeing thee and thy 
courteous manners. The jewels collected for me, I do confer 
upon my two daughters." The royal saint Janaka having 
gone away, R£ma, with folded hands and humbly said to his 
maternal uncle Kaikeya — "O king, this kingdom, myself.Bharat 
and Lakshmana are all at thy disposal. The old king might 
have been grieved for thy long absence. It therefore behoveth 
thee, O king, to go there to-day. With immense wealth and 
various jewels let Likshmana follow thee. Agreeing with 
his request Yudhajit said, " O Rftghava, let jewels 
and wealth be be inexhaustible with thee." Thereupon, 
Rama, at first saluted and went round him and then 
Yudhajit, the son of Kekaya, went away to his kingdom in 
the company of Lakshmana like unto Indra (leaving for home) 
in the company of Vishnu on the destruction of the Asura 
Vitra. Having bade adieu unto his maternal uncle R&ma 
embraced his friend Pratardana, the undaunted king of 
Kashi and said : — "Thou hast displayed thy brotherly feelings 
and delight by making arrangements for my installation in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



the company of Bharata. O king, do thou now leave for thy 
city Baranushi, highly picturesque, well-guarded, girt by 
strong walls on all sides and having well-decorated gate- 
ways." Saying this, Rama, the descendant of Kakutstha 
rose up from his seat and embraced him cordially. Having 
taken farewell from Rama enhancing Kausalya's delight, the 
king of Kashi, with his followers, fearlessly and speedily 
proceeded to his own city. Having bade adieu to the king of 
Kashi, Rama, with a smiling countenance and sweet accents, 
said to the three hundred assembled kings : "Being well 
protected by your own prowess, you have all displayed your 
great love for me. By your piety, truthfulness, sagacity and 
strength, the vicious-souled Ravana hath been slain. For- 
sooth, I am merely the instrument in the destruction of 
Ravana — he hath been slain by your strength. Hearing that 
Sita, the daughter of Janaka, had been stolen away from the 
forest the high-minded Bharata did bring you all — but 
fortunately you were not constrained to go through miseries. 
High-minded as you are, you were all prepared for this 
work. Long since you have come here. I think it 
better that you should proceed to your respective 
habitations." Whereto the kings, greatly delighted, replied : 
" O Rama, it is by thy good fortune that thou hast 
come off victorious and been installed on the throne ; it is 
by thy good luck that thou hast got back Sita and the 
enemy Dacanana hath been vanquished. That we behold 
thee, O Rama, victorious and freed from all enemies, is our 
great benefit and delight. The encomiums, thou hast 
showered upon us, are natural with thee. Thou art Rama, 
who always pleases people. Thou art worthy of being 
praised but we do not know how to praise thee. With thy 
permission we shall now leave for our respective provinces 
but thou shalt always reside in our hearts. O thou having 
long arms, O great king, mayst thou have that love for us 
perpetually that we may find place in thy heart." Whereto 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Rlma replied saying "so be it.' Thereupon the kings, highly 
delighted and desirous of going, bade farewell unto Rama, 
with folded palms and being honored by him, left for their 
respective kingdoms. 


XXAViNG agitated the earth with thousands of elephants 
and horses the kings proceeded to various quarters. And 
being prepared to help R&ma many Akshauhini soldiers with 
many steeds waited at Ayodha at the command of Bharata. 
Those kings, proud and powerful, spoke to one another — " We 
did not face R&vana — the enemy of Rlma; Bharata did 
uselessly invite us after the destruction of R&vana. Had 
they brought us earlier, we would, forsooth, have slain him. 
We would have, on the other side of the ocean, well protec- 
ted by the prowess of Rlma and Lakshmana, and freed from 
all disturbances, fought at pleasure. 1 ' Being thus delighted, 
all those assembled princes proceeded to their respective 
kingdoms, dwelling on these and various other topics. And. 
having arrived at their celebrated cities, unscathed, 
abounding in delighted people, wealth, crops and jewels 
they sent various presents of jems to R&ma for his satisfac- 
tion. Besides this they made over to him innumerable horses, 
conveyances, infuriated elephants, sandal, excellent orna- 
mants, jewels, pearls, corals, beautiful female servants and 
various cars. And taking all those jewels, the highly power- 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 

i?io RAM AY AN A. 

ful Bharala, Lakshmana and Salruglina returned to their 
own city. Having arrived at the picturesque city Ayodhya 
those foremost of men, made presents of various jewels unto 
Rama. Having delightedly accepted those gifts Rama in 
return made presents of them unto the successful king 
Sugriva, Bibhishana and other Rakshasas and monkeys 
by whose help he had achieved victory. And those highly 
powerful monkeys and night-rangers wore on their heads 
and arms those jewels conferred on them by Rama. Having 
placed on his lap the long-armed Angada and Hanuman, the 
mighty car- warrior — the lotus-eyed RSma said to Sugriva 
"Angada is thy good son and Hanuman is thy wise 
councillor. O Sugriva, these are always engaged in my well- 
being and in giving me good counsels. For thee, therefore, 
O king of monkeys, I should honor them in various ways." 
Having said this, the illustrious Rama took off from his arms 
valuable ornaments and adorned Angada and Hanuman 
therewith. Thereupon having welcomed and casting loving 
looks upon the highly powerful and leading monkeys such 
as Neela, Kesarin, Kumuda, Gandhamadana, Sushena, 
Panasa, Mainda, Dwivida, Jambavan, Gabaksha, Dhumra, 
Baleemukha, Prajaghna, Saunada, Dareemukha, Dadhimuka, 
Indrajanu and others, he addressed them all in sweet accents, 
saying: — " You are all my friends like unto my limbs and 
brothers. O ye inhabitants of forests, you have saved me 
from the ocean of danger. Blessed is the king Sugriva and 
blessed are the friends like yourselves". Saying this Rama, 
the foremost of men, conferred upon them duly many 
precious clothes and ornaments and embraced them all. The 
monkeys lived there all happily feasting on fragrant honey, 
well-cooked meat and various fruits and roots. In this way 
they spent more than a month — but it appeared to them as 
a moment on account of their devotion unto Rama. He, too 
also spent his time happily with monkeys assuming shapes 
at will, the highly powerful Rakshasas and the mighty 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


bears. In this way the delighted monkeys and Rakshasas 
spent the second winter month. Enjoying delight they thus 
spent their days happily in the city of Ayodhya working to 
the welfare of Rama. 


J_N this wise, the monkeys, bears and Rakshasas spent 
their days in Ayodhya. Thereupon the highly effulgent 
Rama, the descendant of Raghu said to Sugriva : — " O gentle 
one, proceeding to the city of Kishkindha, hard to be got at 
by the celestials and Asuras, do thou reign there undisturbed 
with thy councillors. O thou having long arms, always look 
towards Angada, with loving eyes. Do thou, O Sugriva, 
protect lovingly the highly powerful Hanuman, Nala, thy 
father-in-law Sushena, the mighty TSlra, irrepressible Kumada, 
the powerful Neela, the heroic Satabali, Mainda, Dwivida, 
Gaya, Gavaksha, Gavaya, Sarava, the irrespressible and 
powerful king of bears Jamvaban, Gandhamadana, valiant 
Rishava, Supatala, Keshan, Sarabha and Sumbha — these 
and other heroic monkeys who dedicated their lives to my 
service. Do thou never act to ther displeasure." Having 
said this and embraced Sugriva again and again Rama 
addressed Bibhishana with sweet accents. " I know, thou 
art cognizant of piety ; the citizens, thy councillors and 
thy brother Kuvera also love thee ; do thou therefore 
go and govern LankSt piously, O king; never cherish 
any vile intention ; the honest kings always enjoy 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the earth. And my only request to thee, O king, is 
that thou mayst with love remember me and Sugriva. Do 
thou now proceed, divested of sorrow." Hearing the words 
of Rama, the bears, monkeys and Rakshasas repeatedly 
exclaimed glory unto Rama and said " O Rama, having long 
arms, thy understanding resembleth that of the Self-Sprung, 
thy prowess is equally wonderful and thy beauty is also 
par excellence. 19 The monkeys and Rakshasas having 
said this, Hanum&n bowing, said unto Rama "May my 
loving reverence be always in thee, O king ; may 
my devotion unto thee remain unshaken, O hero ; and may 
my mind be not attached unto any other thing. May my 
life remain in my body as long as the stories of Rama shall 
be in currency on earth. Let not this prove otherwise. 
foremost of men, O descendant of Raghu, may the Apsaras 
make me always hear of thy themes. O hero, as the winds 
scatter the clouds so I shall remove my anxiety by listening 
to thy nectar-like themes." After Hanuman had said this, 
Rama rose up from his throne and having embraced Hanu- 
man affectionately said, "O foremost of monkeys, what thou 
hast said, shall undoubtedly be carried out into action. As 
long as my stories shall be current on earth thy fame shall 
exist and life shall be in thy body. And as long as the world 
shall exist my themes shall be related. I cannot, even at 
the sacrifice of my life, release myself from the debts of one 
good service out of the many, thou hast done for me, O 
monkey ; and I shall for ever remain indebted to thee for 
thy last benefaction. Or let them wear out in me, for men, 
at the time of danger, become worthy of having their benefits 
returned/ 1 Having said this, Rama took off from his 
neck a chain set with sapphires brilliant as the rays of 
the moon and placed it round the neck of Hanuman. 
Like unto the mountain Suineru beautified by the rising of 
the moon on its summit, Hanuman, the foremost of monkeys, 
appeared graceful with the chain placed on his breast. And 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


bearing the words of RSghava, the highly powerful monkeys, 
one by one, saluted Rima, touching his feet and went away. 
Both Sugriva and the virtuous-souled Bibhishana embraced 
Rlma and three of them were beside themselves with tears. 
And other monkeys and Rakshasas were all moved with 
tears and sorrow to take leave of Rama. Having received 
favours thus from the high-souled Raghava the monkeys 
went away to their own houses like-unto bodied creatures 
leaving off their bodies. Thereupon the Rakshasas, bears, 
monkeys, having bowed unto Rama, the glory of the Raghu 
family and with their eyes full of tears consequent upon his 
separation, went away to the countries from which they had 


XXAV1NG bade adieu unto bears, monkeys and Rakshasas 
the long-armed Rama began to live happiiy in the com- 
pany of his brothers. Thereupon he and his brothers 
beard from the air the following sweet accents : — " O 
gentle Rama, do thou with a delighted countenance 
behold me. O lord, know me as Pushpaka coming from 
the abode of Kuvera. O foremost of men, at thy com- 
mand I did go there to carry him. But he said to me : — 
4 Having slain the irrepressible Ravana in battle the high- 
souled Rama, the foremost of men, hath conquered thee. I 
have greatly been delighted on the destruction of the 
vicious-souled Ravana, with his relatives, sons and friends. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1714 RAM AY AN A. 

gentle one, the great Rama hath conquered thee in LankS ; 

1 permit thee, therefore to convey him. Thou art the fit 
conveyance for traversing all regions. But my earnest 
desire is that thou shouldst take Rama, the descendant of 
Raghu. Do, thou therefore go there at pleasure without 
any sorrow/ Hearing this command of the high-souled 
Kuvera I have come to thee. Do thou fearlessly accept 
me. I am above the conquest of all the worlds. At the 
command of Kuvera I shall valiantly traverse all regions 
carrying out your behests ,, Hearing the words of Push- 
paka, the highly powerful Rama said to the returning 
car stationed in the welkin : — " O foremost of cars, Push- 
paka, if such be the case, do thou come here ; while the 
lord of wealth hath commanded thus, I. will not be 
blameable for bad character." Having said this and 
worshipped it with dried paddy, fragrant flowers and in- 
cense, R3ma, having long arms, addressed Pushpaka — "Do 
thou go now and come here whenever I shall remember thee. 
While proceeding by the welkin, O gentfe one, be not 
sorry for our separation. And be not obstructed in thy 
cmirse whilst traversing all the quarters." Having been 
adored by Rama and saving ' so be it' Pushpaka proceeded 
towards its wished-for direction. And the holy Pushpaka 
car having thus vanished, Bharata, with folded palms, said 
to Rama, the delight of Raghus — u O hero, during thy 
divine administration, we have seen many inhuman creatures 
and objects speak like men. During all these months 
since thy installation subjects have not suffered from any 
disease. Even the most aged animals have not met with 
death. The female, without any risk, have been giving birth 
to children and all people are plump and delighted. The 
delight of the citizens hath been greatly increased, O 
Icing. Indra hath been pouring nectar-like showers in 
due time. The wind is always delightful and wholesome. 
O king of men, the inhabitants of the city and province* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


arc all saying u we may have for ever such a king." Hear- 
ing those sweet accents given vent to by Bharata, Rlma, 
the foremost of kings was greatly delighted. 


xJL AV,NG scilt away the golden Pushpaka, the highly 
powerful RSma entered the Asoka forest beautified by 
sandal, Agura, Mangoe, dark sandal and Debadaru trees, 
and covered with Champaka, Aguru, Naga, Kesara, Madhuka, 
Panasa, Sarja, P&rijita, resembling smokeless fire, Sodhra, 
Neepa, Arjuna, N5ga, Saptaparna, Muktaka, MandSra, 
Kadalee and various creepers, abounding in Priyanga, 
Kadamba, Vakula, Jambu, pomegranate, and Kadali trees, 
containing various flowers, picturesque, having many fruits, 
fragrant, decorated with new leaves and adorned with various 
other trees. There were many a tree, having profuse foliage 
and flowers and covered with maddened black bees as if 
constructed by architects. The forest-land was variegated 
and beautified by cuckoos, the ornaments of mangoe trees, 
black-bees and various birds of various colours. Amongst 
the trees beautifying the forest some were gold-hued, some 
were radiant as the flame of fire and some were like red 
collyrium. There were various flowers, spreading fragrance 
and making garlands. And there were various ponds filled 
with pure water. The stairs of those ponds were made of 
corals and the ground was of crystal. And they were all 
filled with lotuses and lilies. Thry were beautified with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


i 7 i6 RAM AY AN A. 

Chakrabakas and the banks were graced with variegated 
trees and flowers. And the forest was encompassed by 
stone walls and in the inside were dwelling many a Sardula 
bird resembling Vaiduryas. All the trees in the forest were 
filled with flowers. And the rocks there, covered with flowers 
falling down from trees, appeared like welkin beautified 
with stars. And Rama's Asoka forest was like unto 
Indra's Nandana and Kuvera's Chitraratha made by Brahma. 
Having entered the rich Asoka forest abounding in many 
seats and houses and creepers Rama sat on an excellent 
seat covered with a beautiful coverlet and well constructed. 
Like unto Purandara with Sachi he took Sita by the hand, 
made her sit and drink the wine distilled in the province 
of Mira. And in no time the servants brought for him well- 
cooked meat and various fruits. Being inebriete the 
beautiful Apsaras, well-skilled in the art of singing and 
dancing, began to dance before Rama in the company of 
Kinnaris. The virtuous-souled Rama, the foremost of those 
who know how to please, satisfied those beautiful damsels 
adorned with various ornaments. And Sita sitting by him, 
he appeared like the effulgent Vasishtha in the company of 
Arundhati. Being greatly delighted the celestiaMike Rama 
pleased every day Sita resembling a celestial damsel. Sita 
and Raghava thus spent their days happily. And thus was 
spent the delightful winter giving all enjoyments. Enjoying 
various things the high-souled Rama and Sita spent ten 
thousand years. Once on a time, having performed all the 
religious ceremonies, in the fore part of the day, Rama, to 
spend the evening, entered the inner apartment. Sita, too, 
having performed all religious ceremonies, at first attended 
to the service of her mothers-in-law. Thereupon wearing 
a beautifully coloured cloth and being adorned with various 
ornaments Sita appeared before Rama like unto Sachi 
approaching the king of celestials in heaven. And beholding 
the auspicious signs of pregnancy in his spouse Rama 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


attained to excessive delight. Thereupon he said to the 
beautiful Sit* resembling a celestial damsel : — "O 
Yaidehi — signs of pregnancy are manifest in thee. 
What desires of thine can we satisfy ?" Smiling 
a little the daughter of Janaka said : — "0 Raghava, I wish 
to behold the holy hermitages. I wish to salute the 
greatly effulgent Rishis living on fruits and roots and 
residing on the banks of the Ganges. I greatly desire, O 
Rama, that I may spend even one night in the hermitage of 
the Rishis living on fruits and roots." Whereto replied 
Rama of unwearied actions, saying 'so be it. 1 Believe me, 
O Vaidehi, that thou undoubtedly go there to-morrow." 
Having thus addressed Maithili, the daughter of Janaka, 
Rama, the descendant of Kakutstha, then issued out of the 
inner apartment and entered the middle one filled with his 


Xv\MA having taken his seat there, the experienced 
councillors encircling him began to dwell upon many amusing 
stories. Bijoya, Madhumatta, Kasyapa, Mangala, Kula, 
Surajni, Kalya, Vadra Dantavakta, Sumagadha — all 
delightedly began to introduce many amusings talks before 
the high-souled Rama. Thereupon Rama incidentally ad- 
dressed them saying — " O Vadra, how do the inhabitants of 
the city and provinces talk about Sita, Bharata, Lakshmana, 
Satrughna and the mother Kaikeyi ? The kings, when they 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


deviate from the paths of justice, become objects of censure in 
the houses of men and even in the forests as well." R&ma 
having said this, Vadra with folded hands replied : — "0 king, 
the citizens speak many good things about thee ; besides 
they dilate upon many things in their own houses regarding 
thine conquest acquired by the destruction of the Ten-necked 
demon." Hearing the words of Vadra, Rama said : — "Without 
hiding any thing, do thou relate every thing from the be- 
ginning as they are ; what good and bad things have 6een 
given vent to by. the citizens. Hearing the good and bad 
opinions of the citizens I shall desist from bad actions and 
engage in good ones. Whatever vicious actions of mine 
are talked of by subjects in cities and provinces do thou 
relate unto me confidently and fearlessly. " Hearing the 
sweet accents of Rama, Vadra, with a quiesceni mind and 
folded palms, said : — "Hear, O king, I shall relate to thee all 
those unpleasant things frequently dwelt upon by people in 
court-yards, markets, public roads, forests and, gardens. 
Indeed Rama hath accomplished a wonderfully hard work ; 
our ancestors, the celestials, the Danavas — none heard of 
constructing a bridge over the ocean ? R&ma hath slain 
the irrepressible Ravana with his army and brought over 
the monkeys, bears and Rakhasas to his own side. Having 
discomfitted Ravana, in the encounter Rama hath released 
Sit&, but not being the least enraged or account of her 
being touched by Ravana he hath brought her to his 
own city. RSvana did forcibly place SitSL on her lap; 
how can then Rama enjoy delight in her company? 
Having taken her to the city of Lanka, Rivana did keep 
her in the Asoka forest and SitSL was brought under the 
control of Rakshasces. Still Rlma hath not been worked 
up with hatered by Sita. From now we shall also brooke 
the bad conduct of our wives — for the subjects always 
tread the footsteps of their King. O King, the subjects 
thus talk of many things in cities and provinces." Hear- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


ings those words of Vadra, RSghava was greatly sorry 
and asked his friends saying "Do the subjects thus talk 
about mc?" Thereupon lowering their heads and saluting 
him they all said to Raghava, of a depressed mind — 
w For sooth, the subjects thus talk about." Thereupon 
Kakutstha, the slayer of enemies, hearing all those words, 
dismissed his friends. 



^AvlNG sent away his friends and determined what 
to do, Rama, the delight of the Raghus, commanded the 
warder, who was seated hard by, saying : — " Do thou 
speedily bring here, Lakshmana the son of Sumitra and 
gifted with auspicious marks, the great Bharata and the 
irrepressible Satrughna." Hearing the words of Rama and 
placing his folded palms on his head the warder reached 
the bouse of Lakshmana and unobstructed entered therein* 
And having saluted him, with folded palms he said to 
the high-souled Lakshmana *, — " The King wishes to be- 
hold thee — do thou soon go there. " Thereupon being 
apprised of Raghava's command and saying 'so be it/ Saumitri 
ascended his car and went speedily towards Rama's 
abode. Having beheld Lakshmana's departure the warder 
humbly went to Bharata and having blessed him with 
folded hands said : — ,# The King wishes to see thee. ,f 
Hearing of the command of Rama from the warder, the 
highly powerful Bharata at once got up from his seat 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i 7 20 RAM AY ANA. 

and proceeded on foot. Seeing Bharata's departure the 
warder speedily went to Satrughna and with folded hands 
said :— " Do thou come, O foremost Raghus, the King 
wisheth to behold thee." Hearing the words of the warder 
Satrughna lowered his head and rising up speedily pro- 
ceeded to Rama. Thereupon returning, the warder, with 
folded hands, communicated unto Rama, the arrivals of 
his brothers. So long Rama was engaged poorly in 
anxious meditation with his crown bent downwards. In- 
formed of the princes' arrival he commanded the warder, 
" Do thou soon bring the princes here. My. life depends 
upon them. They are my dearest life." Having obtained 
Rama's command, the princes, clothed in white raiment, 
entered there, with folded palms and quiescent mind. 
Having entered there they saw that Rama's countenance 
was shorn of beauty like unto the moon possessed by 
Rahu, the setting sun and the withered lotus and his 
eyes were full of tears. Having approached him quickly, 
and saluted his feet they anxiously sat there. 
Thereupon having wiped off his tears and embraced them 
with his arms he raised up the princes and pressed them 
to take their seats. Thereupon he said^-"You are mine 
all ; you constitute my life ; O princes, I am governing the 
kingdom gained by you ; you are all learned, pious and 
intelligent. Do ye follow the duties I point out." Rama, 
the descendant of Kakustha having said this, they, with 
anxiety and attention, awaited the orders of the king. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X HE princes were all waiting with a poorly heart when 
R2ma, with a dried countenance, addressed them, saying: — 
•• May good betide you — do not act against my desire. Hear, 
what the citizens have been talking about me and Sit§. The 
citizens as well as the inhabitants of provinces have beett 
showering censures upon me. I have been pierced to the very 
vitals by those accusations. I have been born in the illustrious 
family of the high-souled Ikshawkus. Sita hath been born 
also in the holy family of the great Janaka ; gentle Lakshitfana, 
thou knowest how in the solitary forest of Dandaka, Sita 
was stolen away by Rivana and how have I slain him. At 
that time even I was stricken with anxiety regarding Sita 
that how 1 could take her home since she had resided in the 
house of the Rakshasas. To secure my confidence, Sit*, 
in your very presence, entered fire* At that time, O Saumitri, 
fire, carrying sacrificial oblations and the wind of the sky 
declared Sila's innocence before the celestials. In the pre- 
sence of all the Rishis and gods, the Sun and Moon an- 
nounced the innocence of the daughter of Janaka. Indra, 
the king of the celestials, himself handed over the chaste 
Sita unto me in the island of Lanka. My mind knoweth 
Sita as chaste for ever. So, at that time, I came back to 
Ayodhya with Sita. But now a great sorrow consequent 
upon the censure ef the citizens and villagers hath pierced 
my heart. Hi% who is notorious on this earth and as 
long as that notoriety remains current, is classed amongst 
the vile. Even the celestials speak ill of bad name 
—-whereas fame is adored in all the regions. There- 
fore the bigli-souled exert their best to acquire reputation. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 722 RAM AY ANA. 

O foremost of men, what to speak of the daughter of 
Janaka — I can even renounce my life and yourselves in 
fear of a bad name. Do ye therefore perceive into what 
great abyss of sorrow and ill-fame I have fallen. Up to 
this time I have never experienced such a mighty grief. 
Do thou, O Lakshmana, ne*t niorriing, ascending the car 
driven by Sumantra, take away SitSL to another cfcuhtrjr. 
There is a picturesque hermitage of the high-souled 
V&lmiki situate on the TamasS on tfie fcther side of the 
river Ganges. Do tbou, O delight of Raghus, soon come 
back, leaving behind Sita in that lovely place. Do thott 
carry out my words* Do thou ndt speak anything regarding 
Sita's Banishnient; O Saumitri, if dost thou request me 
to desist from this, it shall be the more unpleasant unto 
hie. For my life and arms, do ye not proffer any request 
unto me regarding this, If So, you shall only endanger 
iny well-being and I shall ever regard you as my enemies. 
|f you obey my behests; do ye honor my words now. 
Do ye take away SitS from here. Ere this Sit* had 
communicated her intention of beholding the hermitages 
of ascetics on the banks of the Ganges. Let tnat desrrcf 
of hers be rtbw satisfied." While saying tnis, the eyes of 
the virtubus-souled Rama were covered with tears. Sigh- 
ing hard like unto an elephant, he, with a heart stricken 
ivith grief, departed to his own quarter in the company of 
his brothers. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Xhe night being over, Lakshmana, with a poor heart 
*qd dnfd countenance, addressed Sumantra, saying:— -i'Q 
charioteer, do thou soon yoke quick-coursing steeds to aij 
excellent chariot, and for Sita place an excellent seat on 
the car. At (he command of the King, I shall take Sita. 
to the hermitage of the ascetics ever engaged in pious 
actions. Do thou soon bring the chariot here." Obeying the 
mandate, and bringing a beautiful and holy car drawn by first- 
rate steeds and having excellent seats, he said to Saunjitri, the 
enhancer of fri*n<}«' honor "O lord, here is the chariot ready— r 
do thou now satisfy thine desire. 11 Hearing the words of 
Sumatra, Lakshmana, the foremost of men, approached Sita 
in the inqer apartment and said : — "O queen, thou didst 
request the king to show thee the hermitage — the king toq 
did promise — he hath now commanded me to take thee 
there. Do thou therefore follow me, at the command of the 
king. ( shall, at his behest, take thee to the forest where 
dwell many an ascetic." Hearing the words of the high- 
souled Lakshmana, J&naki attained to excessive delight and 
became anxious to go. Taking various jewels and costly 
clothes she said to Lakshmana. on the eve of her departufa— 
"I shall confer these ornaments, these cqstly clothes and 
riches on the female ascetics. 4 ' Saying 'we shall do the same' 
he made 6iU ascend the car and remembering Rama's 
command proceeded, being carried by quick-coursing steeds. 
Thereupon SitJ s*id to Lakshmana, the enhancer of 
prosperity : — "O descendent of Raghu, I behold many 
inauspicious omens. My right eye and body are trembling. 
My mind is growing depressed. It is stricken with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1 724 RAM AY AN A. 

anxiety and I have accordingly grown restless. I behold 
the earth as void of all happiness. O thou fond of brothers — 
hath thy brother met with any calamity ? Are all my 
mothers-in-law and subjets well ?" Saying this Sita, with 
folded hands, began to pray unto gods. Hearing this 
Lakshmana bowed unto her touching the ground with his 
crown, and though gpeatly sorry, said as if delighted "All 
well." Thereupon having arrived at the hermitage situate on 
the banks of Gomati Lakshmana spent the night there. There^ 
upon at dawn he rose up and asked the charioteer to get 
the chariot ready, saying, "Like unto the powerful Mahadeva 
we shall hold the waters of the Bhagirathi on our head." There* 
upon Sumantra yoked the horses, gifted with the fleet course 
of the mind, to the chariot and with folded hands said to 
Sita "Do thou ascend the car." According to the request of 
the intelligent charioteer, Sita, with Lakshmana, ascended that 
excellent conveyance. In no time the daughter of Janaka,having 
expansive eyes, arrived at the banks of the Ganges removing 
all sins, Reaching the currents of Bhagirathi before noon 
Lakshmana, on beholding her, cried aloud. Thereupon be- 
holding Lakshmana thus distressed, Sita, conversant with 
piety, waxing anxious said. "Why art thou weeping, 
Lakshmana? I have reached the banks of Janhavi, for which 
I have so long desired. So this is the time for rejoicing and 
do not give me pain at this time. O foremost of men, thou 
dost spend thine days and nights in the company of Rama, 
Thou hast left him for two days only — art thou sorry for 
this ? Lakshmana — Rama is also dearer than my life — but 
I am not sq sorry — do thou not be therefore overwhelmed 
with grief. Do thou take me to the other side of the Ganges 
so that I may behold the ascetics an,4 cqnfer upon them 
clothes and ornaments. Thereupon saluting them duly and 
spending a night we shall return to the capital. I am also 
anxious to see Rama, having eyes like lotus petals, 
fcreast like that of a lion and foremast of men." Hearing 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the won Is of Sill and wiping his beautiful eyes, Lakshmana, 
the slayer of enemies, sent for boatmen. As soon as they 
were called, with folded hands they said. " The boat is 
ready/' Having then brought a boit to cross the holy Ganges 
Lakshmana, with a quiescent mind, took her to the other 



.AVING at first conducted Sit* to the spacious and 
well decorated boat plied by fishermen Lakshmana himself 
got up. Thereupon he ordered Sumantra to wait there with 
the chariot, and being beside himself with sorrow ordered the 
sailors to move on. Thereupon having reached the other side 
of Bh&girathi, Lakshmana, with subdued voice and folded 
palms, said to SU& — "O daughter of the king of Videha, this. 
hath pierced my heart like a dart, that my brother, by making 
me the instrumental of this action hath made me th© 
object of censure in the world. The death and the 
pain consequent upon it arc better than the action I am 
engaged in. Be thou propitiated, O beautiful damsel, do 
not hold me responsible for this." Saying this, the humble 
Lakshmana began to weep and pray for death. Beholding 
him thus overwhelmed, SitA said "What is the matter, 
Lakshmana ? I do not understand anything. Do thou 
speak out everything plainly unto me. I find thee beside 
thyself (with grief) ; is it all well with the kingdom ? In 
the name of the king, do thou give out unto me, the cause 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

!736 RAM AY AN A. 

of thy sorrow.*' Sita having addressed him thus, Lakshmana. 
with a poorly heart and suppressed tone, said °0 worshipful 
queen; I h^ve kept within my heart all those words, which 
the king said, before he entered his palace, rendered sorry 
and impatient on hearing in the assembly the report of 
censure regarding thee, O daughter of king Janaka. All 
those words are indeed above description and so I desist. 
J only say so much, that afraid of the calumny oj \\\e citizens 
he hath renounced thee although thy purity was sufficiently 
proved befqre me. But for that, do not consider thyself 
in any way guilty. R^ma hath commanded me to leave thee 
near the hermitage on the pretext of satisfying thine desire 
^s thou art big with a child. Do not uselessly give vent to 
sorrow any more. There is the holy hermitage of the saints 
pn the banks of Janhavi. There lives V&lmiki, the foremost 
of saints, a great friend of our sire Dacaratha. O daughter 
of Janaka, approaching that high-souled saint, do thou spend 
thy days happily keeping Rama always in thy mind. Do thou 
satisfy the deities, O chaste damsel. This shall crown thee 
with auspiciousness." 


X1EARING the ruthless words of Lakshmana,the daughter 
of Janaka, greatly sorry, fell down on earth. And remaining 
senseless for some time, Sitft, wiih her eyes full of tears 
said to Latehmana : — "Forsooth, O Lakshmana, the great 
Dispenser hath created this body to suffer-miscries ; and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

UTtARAKANbAti. i)2j 

all my afflictions are manifest in form to-day. Methinks; 
I committed a mighty iniquity in my pristine existence or 
brought about separation between a husband and wife and 
for that Rama hath teridiiriccd me albeit I am pure and 
chaste. O son of Sumitra, the affliction of residing in the 
forest appeared to me as pleasure ere this for I knew that 
I would he able to serve Rama's feet. But how shall 1; O 
gentle one, live in the herttiitage being divorced from all my 
kith and kin ? And being afflicted td whom shall I express 
my sorrow ? What reply shall I offer unto the ascetics 
when they shall ask me "Child, why hath the high-souled 
Raghava renounced thee ? What sin hast thou committed ?' 
O Saumitri, I shall just renounce my life in the waters of 
Jahnavi ? But I desist from this for it shall bring about the 
termination O my husband's race. O Saumitri, do thou 
carry out the orders thou hast received. By renouncing 
this wretched wight do thou satisfy the King's orders* 
But hear, what I say. Without making any distinction* 
do tboti) in my name) with folded hands, bow unto my 
mothers-in-law and then ask the well-being of the king- 
dom. Thereupon saluting the pious King do fliou address 
him, in my name, saying :— " Thou knowestj O Raghava* 
that Sita is pure, ever devoted unto thee and engaged 
in thy well-being. She knows it full well, that afraid of 
a bad name thou hast renounced her. It is her duty to 
put a stop td thy ill-name and cerisiire ; for thou art 
her excellent refuge.' Do thou tell further-more that 
king established in righteousness to treat the citizens ad 
his brothers, to acquire piety by protecting his subjects 
duly — for this is the greatest morality and by this may 
be acquired excellent fame. Tell him that I am not sorry 
for my person — my greatest sorrow is that the citizens 
have vilified me. Husband is a woman's god — her friend 
and spiritual guide. It is proper therefore to work out 
husband's well-being even at the sacrifice of life. Do 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1728 RAM A VAN A. 

thou, Likshmana, conlniiinicate it in short unto 
Rama, in my names Do thou go now and behold 
the signs of pregnancy are manifest in me." Sita 
having said this, Lakshmana, with a bewildered heart, saluted 
her touching the ground with his head. He could not speak 
more. Thereupon bewailing aloud and circumambulating 
her, he, meditating a little, said. "What art thou speaking 
unto me, O worshipful dame ? O thou having no sin, up td 
this time 1 have not seen any portion of thy beautiful person 
but feet. This is a solitary forest and besides the worship- 
ful Rama, is not present here — under these circums- 
tances how can I cast looks upon thee ?" Having addressed 
SiiS in this wise Lakshmana again sent for a boat and 
ascending it ordered the boatmen to go. Thereupon having 
reached the other side and being beside himself with sorrow 
and grief he speedily ascended the car. And casting his 
looks behind while proceeding he espied that Sita, on the 
other side of the Ganges, was roving wildly like one having 
none to look after her. Looking again and again when 
Sita saw that Lakshmana and the chariot have gone beyond 
the range of her vision, she became overwhelmed with 
anxiety and grief. Being sunk in grief and pressed down 
with the weight of sorrow on not beholding Rama, the fore- 
most of the illustrious, the chaste SitSL began to cry aloud 
in the forest resounded with the notes of peacocks* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




fOLDING SitS. thus wailing, the sons of the Rishid 
there speedily approached the great V3Llmiki, well-established 
in asceticism. And saluting him they all communicated 
onto him Sitl's be waitings and said, " O great sir, we 
do not know the wife of what great man, beautifnl 
like the very Lakshmi, and not seen before, is crying aloud 
very poorly ? It is better that thou shouldst see her once. 
That beautiful damsel, like a goddess falling from heaven 
being bewildered, is waiting on the banks of the river. We 
saw her alone crying aloud being overwhelmed with sorrow 
and grief as if she had none to look after her. A 
damsel like her should not be subject to such a con- 
dition. She did not appear to us to be a woman. Do 
thoa receive her duly. She is near the hermitage and 
so hath come to seek thy shelter. O illustrious Sir, she 
i* on the look out for a protector — do thou protect hen" 
The pious V&lmiki could perceive every thing by virtue 
of his asceticism ; and ascertaining the truth of the words 
of the Rishi boys by the power of his understanding, he, 
with quick steps, approached SiUL And the disciples 
followed that high-minded ascetic* Thereupon proceeding 
a little on foot with Arghya in his hands, the wise V&l- 
miki reached the banks of the river and saw that 
Rlghava's spouse was bewailing like Sl helpless woman. 
Having gladdened a little the aggrieved Sita by virtue 
of his own effulgence the great ascetic V&Imiki addressed 
her in following sweet accents " O chaste damsel, thou 
art the daughter-in-law of Da^aratha, the beloved wife 
of Ritna and the daughter of Janaka ; thy coming here is 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1730 RAM AY AN A. 

auspicious. I am apprized, by virtue of asceticism and 
meditation, of the object of thy coming here. O great lady, 
I am also fully aware that thou art by all means chaste. 
In fact I am conscious of all the incidents in the three 
worlds. By the eyes of asceticism, I perceive, O daughter 
of Janaka, that thou art innocent. Thou hast come under 
my shelter, O Vaidehi — be thou consoled. O child, the 
pious ascetics live around my hermitage. They shall 
daily take care of thee as their daughter. Do thou accept this 
Arghya now, and confiding in me do thou remove thy grief. 
Be not sorry for anything; consider that thou hast come 
to thy own home." Hearing the wonderful words of the 
great ascetic, Sita humbly touched his feet and said " Thy 
desire shall be fulfilled." Saying this, she, with folded 
hands, followed the ascetic. Beholding the great ascetic 
and Sita approach, the wives, of the Rishis, delighted 
neared them and said : — " Do thou come, O foremost of 
Rishis, thou hast arrived here after a long time. We all 
bow unto thee — do thou order what we shall do," Hearing 
their words the great Valmiki replied in worthy accents— 
" This Sita is the wife of the intelligent Rama, the daughter- 
in-law of Dacaratha and the daughter of Janaka. She has 
now come to our hermitage. She is* chaste and innocent, 
still her husband hath renounced her. So we should all pro- 
tect her. She is worthy of your reverence — specially while 
such is the order of mine— your preceptor. So, do ye all, 
take care of her with great affection." Having consigned the 
charge of Sit5 unto the hands of the female ascetics, 
the great and illustrious ascetic Valmiki, followed by his 
disciples, speedily proceeded towards his holy hermitage. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




►EHOLDING the great ascetic VSlmiki thus conduct- 
ing Sita into his own hermitage Lakshmana* s heart was 
bewildered with grief. Thereupon he said to the expert 
charioteer Sumantra. " Do thou perceive Rama's grief 
consequent upon the separation from SitS. His spouse — 
the daughter of Janaka, is perfectly pure ; what can be 
more painful than that RSma is living alone having renounced 
her ? It is clear unto me, O Sumantra, that this separation 
of Rama, hath been brought about by the influence of 
destiny — for it is hard to g£t over accident. Even that 
RJLma, who, when enraged, is capable of slaying the celes- 
tials, Gandharbas, Asuras and Rakshasas, hath been engaged 
in the worship of destiny. Formerly did Rama go through 
miseries, residing in the forest of Dandaka, at the com- 
mand of his sire for fourteen years. But this banishment 
of SitS appears to me as exceedingly painful and most ruth- 
less. O charioteer, the opinion of the citizens is by no 
means just; consequently what shall we gain by perform- 
ing such a bad action for fame as the exile of Sita ?" 
Hearing those words of Lakshmana, the wise Sumantra 
reverentially replied : — " Be not aggrieved for Siti, O Sau- 
mitri Formerly in the presence of thy sire the Brah- 
mananas related this account of Site's exile. Rama shall 
be deprived of all happiness and be separated from his 
dear wife ; what more, the virtuous-souled Rama, having 
long arms, shall, under the influence of time, renounce thee, 
SitS, Satrughna and Bharata. O Lakshmana, when Durbasa 
was addressed by the king Da^aratha as to thy future he 
replied in the above fray. I have told thee the same. Do thou 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1732 RAM AY AN A. 

not communicate this unto Satrughna, Bharata or any body. 
O foremost of men, Durbasa said this unto Da9aratha before 
me, Vasishtha and other great men. Hearing the words 
of Rishi, Da^aratha, the foremost of men, said unto me, 
"O charioteer, do not reveal this secret to any body/' O 
gentle one, it is not proper by any means to falsify the words 
of the king Da9aratha. I shall always, very carefully, carry 
out his orders. It is not proper to reveal this mystery 
before thee. Still I do so for thy curiosity hath been greatly 
excited. Though this mystery was communicated formerly 
by the king Da^aratha and though it is not proper to reveal 
it to any body, still I express it before thee that thou mayst 
not, on hearing it, be worked up with sorrow ; for destiny 
is hard to be got over. And it is by the influence of that 
destiny that thou hast met with such a sorrow and grief. 
However, do thou not reveal this secret unto Satrughna and 
Bharata." Hearing these grave and important words of 
Sumantra, Lakshmana ordered him to relate. 



>EiNG thus requested by the high-souled Lakshmana, 
Sumantra began to reveal the mystery of Durbasa's account. 
"In the days of yore the great ascetic Durbasa, the son of 
Atri, resided for a year in the holy hermitage of Vasishtha. 
At that time thy sire, the highly effulgent and illustrious 
Da^aratha, with a view to see his high-souled priest 
Vasishtha, repaired there. He saw the great ascetic Durbisa, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Warning like the sun in his effulgence, seated on the right 
hand side of Vasishtha. Thereupon he humbly saluted those 
two leading ascetics. And they too, welcoming him, received 
him duly with seat, water to wash feet, Arghya, fruits and 
roots. Then he lived there in the company of the ascetics. 
Thereupon during the noon, all those ascetics, seated there, 
began to dwell upon various pleasant topics. During an 
interval Da^aratha, with folded hands and uplifted arms, said 
to the high-souled soft of Atri — Durbasa, having asceticism 
for his wealth. "O illustrious Sir, how long shall my family 
remain in existence ? What is the extent of the lease of life 
granted to Rama and my other sons ? How long shall the 
descendants of Rama live ? And what shall be the end of 
my race ? Do thou relate all this unto me." Hearing the 
words of the king Da^aratha the highly effulgent Durbasa 
replied : — "Hear, the early history, O king. During the 
encounter between the celestials and Asuras, the demons, 
being remonstrated with by the celestials sought shelter 
of the wife ©f Vrigu— thy priest. Vrigu's wife having 
promised them help they lived there fearlessly. Having 
beheld the demons thus helped by Vrigu's wife, Hari, ths 
king of the celestials, enraged, chopped off her head with 
his sharp discus. And angry on beholding his wife slain, 
Vrigu, imprecated a curse on Vishnu, the slayer of enemies' 
race, saying — "Being beside thyself with anger thou hast slain 
my wife, not worthy of being killed ; therefore, O Janarddana, 
thou shalt be born in the region of mortals. And there 
thou shalt remain separated from thy spouse for many long 
y ears." Having imprecated this curse, Vrigu was greatly 
pained and being propitiated by his adoration, Vishnu, fond 
of disciples, said :— ''Having slain Ravana and others, I shall 
be, for the behoof of mankind, subject to this imprecation." 
O bestower of kings, the highly effulgent Vishnu, thus 
imprecated by Vrigu in the days of yore, hath been born as 
thy son in this birth and hath been celebrated under the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1734 RAM AY AN A. 

appellation of Rama. O conferer of honors, for sooth shall 
Rama partake of the fruits of Vrigu's curse. He shall reign in 
Ayodhya for a long time. All his followers shall be happy and 
prosperous. Having reigned for eleven thousand years- 
Rama shall repair to the region of Brahma. None shall 
be able to vanquish him. He shall celebrate many a 
horse-sacrifice with profuse gifts and shall establish many 
royal families. He shall beget on Sit& two sons." 
Having thus related unto Dacaratha .the past and future 
of his family the highly effulgent great ascetic Durbas& 
became silent. He being silent — the great King Dacaratha, 
having bowed unto the two high-souled ascetics, again 
returned to his city Ayodhya. I had heard there all these 
words of the great ascetic Durbasi. Up to this time they 
are lying in my heart. Rishis* words shall never prove 
fruitless. According to the words of Rishi Rama shall 
install two sons of Sita in Ayodhya, not anywhere else. 
Under these circumstances, O Lakshmana, thou shouldst 
not grieve for Sita or Rama ; in their interest do thou 
become patient." Hearing those wonderous words of the 
charioteer Sumantra, Lakshmana became greatly happy 
and eulogised him again and again ? They thus convers- 
ing with one another oh their way back, the sun set* 
They accordingly spent that night on the banks of Kesini. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



— 06 — 


AVWG spent the night on the banks of Kesini, 
the mighty car-warrior Lakshmana, got up early in the 
morning and again proceeded on his journey (home) 
and reached in the noon the city of AyodhyJl filled with 
various jewels and delighted and plump citizens. ' fiut the 
high-souled Lakshmana became greatly sorry stricken with 
the thought as to what he should relate oh approaching 
the feet of R&ma. Whilst proceeding with this thought 
he saw the highly picturesque palace of R&ma resembling 
the rays of the moon. Having descended from his car 
at the palace-gate, Lakshmana, the foremost of men, with 
his face downwards and a distressed heart, unobstructed, 
entered the palace. Having entered there he saw his 
elder brother R&ma seated poorly on an excellent seat 
with his eyes full of tears. Being greatly pained at the 
sight, Saumitri touched his feet and with folded palms 
said: — "O worshipful sir, having obeyed thy behests 1 
have left the daughter of Janaka at the holy hermitage 
of Vllmiki near the banks of the Ganges. Hiving left 
that illustrious pure lady at the skirt of the hermitage 
I have again come to serve thy feet. Do thou not grieve* 
O foremost of men, for such is the course of time. The 
intelligent people like thee do not grievei Where there is 
growth there is decay, where there is prosperity there is ruin, 
and where there is birth there is death. Therefore attach- 
ment unto wife, sons, friends and riches is not proper, for 
surely shall be brought about separation with them. Whilst 
thou canst control thyself and thy mind, shouldst thou not 

Dig^dby VjiOO< 

1736 RAM AY AN A. 

be able to bear this trifling pain of separation ? Leading 
men like thyself are never overwhelmed by all these things. 
O RSghava, thou shalt again be blamed by the people. In 
fear of this calumny, O sing that thou hast renounced 
Maithili. And if dost thou grieve for that spouse thy 
calumny shall undoubtedly be deep-rooted in the kingdom. 
Therefore do thou restore thyself patiently, O foremost of 
men. Do thou give up this weakness and be not sorry.' 1 
The intelligent Lakshmana, the son of SumitrS, having said 
this, RSLma, the descendant of K§kutstha and fond of 
friends, with great delight said : — "Thou hast spoken the 
truth, O Lakshmana, O foremost of men. 1 have been 
greatly delighted, O hero for thy carrying out my orders. O 
gentle Saumitri, my grief and sorrow have been removed 
for those pleasant words of thine." 



XXEARINC those wondrous words of Lakshmana Rlma 
Was greatly delighted and said " thou having an auspicious 
look, thou art gifted with great intellect and after my heart ; 
a friend like thee is rare at such a time. But O beautiful 
Saumitri, do thou, apprised of my intention, carry out my 
words. O gentle son of Sumitra, for not looking to state 
business for these four days 1 have been pierced to the very 
vitals. Do thou therefore call here men, or women, priests 
or councillors who have come for business. For sooth do 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


a ttmg falls into the dreadful hell where the wind doth not 
blow, who does not daily look into his state affairs. I have 
heard, O forenftost of men, that there lived in the days of 
yore a highly illustrious, truthful and pure-minded king, ever 
devoted unto the Brahmanas, by the name of Nriga. Once 
on a time at the sacred pilgrimage of Pushpaka that king 
conferred upon the Brahmanas one Koti of kine with 
calves adorned with golden ornaments. Acci- 

dentally on that occasion, a cow with calf belonging 
to a poor Brahman, living upon low means, was given 
away along with other kine. Undergoing hunger and thirst, 
the master of that lost cow travelled for a long time 
in many places in search of it. Thereupon having 
reached the province of Kanakhal he espied his own 
cow in the house of a Brahmana. The cow was well kept 
and the young one was grown up. Thereupon the Brahman 
called the cow by the name given by him saying " Savala, 
come." The cow heard that and recognizing the voice of the 
Brahman followed him. And he preteded her burning like fire. 
And the Brahmana, in whose house the cow so long remained, 
speedily pursued her and approaching the ascetic said. 
•'This cow is mine. The king Nriga cbnferred this upon 
me. M So there arose a great quarrel between the two 
(earned Brahmanas. And thus quarreling they .both ap- 
proached hint who had given away the cow. And though 
they waited for a long time at the gate they did not obtain 
permission to enter the palace. Thereat both of them were 
greatly engraged and imprecated dreadful curses, saying 
11 Since thou hast not granted us an interview though we 
have been waiting here for a long time, thou shalt, by our 
curse, remain invisible, being a lizard. Thou shalt in this 
state live in a den for many hundred and thousand years. 
When Vishnu assuming a human person shall be born in the 
Vasudeva family of Yadavas and enhance their glory he shall 
liberate thee from the curse. Immediately befere the advent 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1738 & a may an a. 

of the Kali Yuga the Rishi Nara Narayana gifted with great 
prowess shall descend upon earth to relieve her of the burden. 
" Having thus imprecated the curse upon the king the Rishisr 
became silent. The cow was old and weak so they both* 
with mutual consent, conferred that upon another Brahman, 
O Lakshmana, the king Nriga is still suffering from that 
dreadful curse. It is the king's fofly that is manifest from 
the mutual disagreement of the workers. Do thou bring 
them all speedily to me who have come for business. For, 
sooth shall the kings profit by the just administration. 
Do thou therefore go in person, O Lakshmana and see 
Who hath come for business/' 

Section lxiV, 

-00 — 


EARING the words of the highly effulgent Rlmat, 
Lakshmana, conversant with discrimanative knowledge, 
replied with folded hands, saying : — " O Kakutstha, it is 
for a very simple folly thatt the two Brahnrarias impre- 
cated that curse upon the king Nriga, dreadful as the 
rod of Varna. May t ask thee, O foremost of men, what 
did that King say unto the Blrahmans when he was 
thus imprecated ?" Whereto R3ma replied saying : — " O 
gentle one, hear, what the king Nriga said when impre- 
cated. Hearing of the departure of the Brahmanas he 
for his priest, minister, the citizens and subjects and 
lied with sorrow said : — " Do ye all hear attentively 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


my words. Having imprecated a dreadful curse upon me 
the jolly saint Narada and the ascetic Parvata have speedily, 
like the wind, repaired to the region of Brahma. Do ye 
therefore, even today, place the prince Vasu on the 
throne, and let the architects prepare a pleasant den for 
me. Living therein I shall waste the curse of the Brahmans. 
Let the architects dig one den to protect me against the rains, 
one against the affliction of the winter and one against the 
distresses of summer. Let them enhance the picturesqueness 
of those dens by planting many trees having profuse 
branches and fruits and flowers. As long as time shall not 
change so long I shall spend my days happily in th* den. 
For half a league on all sides around me let flower trees ■ 
be planted." Having made those arrangements and placed 
Vasu on the throne the king Nriga said : — " Do not swerve 
from the path of morality, O my son, and do thou duly govern 
the subjects according to the custom of the Kshatryas. 
Thou hast seen, with thine own eyes, the curse that the 
Brahmanas have given me being enraged for a very trifling 
folly of mine. Do thou not repent for me. My son, time 
is the lord of happiness and sorrow ; it is by the influence 
of time that I have fallen into such a disaster. Creatures 
must meet with what is kept in store by destiny ; they must 
go where they are bound for and they must ac- 
quire what is set apart for them. Pristine actions are the 
root of all these; so, be not sorry, O my son." O 
foremost of mea, having given this advice unto his son, the 
highly illustrious king Nriga proceeded to live in the sweet 
fragrant den. Having entered the den filled with many 
jewels the high-souled king began to spend his days in the 
satisfaction of the curse imprecated by the two Brahmanas." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




1_ HAVE thus given unto thee in account of the curse 
imprecated on Nriga. Listen, if dost thou wish to hear of 
any other theme." Rama having said this Lakshmana 
replied : — " \ am not satiated with the account of those 
wonderful stories, O king." Hearing the reply of Laks- 
mana, Rama, the descendant of fkshawku, began again 
with themes instinct with morality : — " There lived a highly 
pious and powerful king by the name of Nimi. He was 
the. twelfth of Ikshawku's sons. That powerful king made a 
picturesque city like *that of the celestials near the 
hermitage of Gautama. The name of that beautiful city 
was Vaijayanta and the highly illustrious royal saint 
flse.4 to live there. Having thus reared a hrghly 
picturesque city he thought of worshipping the deity by 
Celebrating a sacrifice for the satisfaction of his 
sire. Having thus resolved and invited his sire Ikshawku 
the son of Manu, he first welcomed the celestial saint. Nimi, 
the descendant of Ikshwaku, then welcomed the saints Atri, 
Angiras and Vrigu having asceticism for their wealth. There- 
upon Vasishtha said to Nimi, the foremost of royal saints — ■ 
" I have already been engaged by Indra. Do thou therefore 
w r ait as long as his sacrifice is not finished there." After 
the departure of Vasishtha the great Gautama engaged ia 
the satisfaction of Vasistha's duties. And the high-souled 
Vasishtha too engaged in Indra's sacrifice. On the 
other hand having united all the Brahmans the great 
king began to celebrate the sacrifice extending over five 
thousand years near his city by the side of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Himayala. Thereupon having finished the sacrifice of 
Indra there came to the King, the blameless and the 
illustrious Rishi Vashishtha. Finding Gautama engaged 
in his room he was exceedingly enraged. Thereupon 
be waited there for some time to see the King. On that 
day the royal saint Nimi was deeply asleep. And not 
beholding the King the high-souled Vasishtha was greatly 
angry and said : — " Since thpu hast, O King, engaged 
another neglecting me, thy body shall remain senseless." 
Thereupon hearing the curse of Vasishtha, the king got up. 
There beside himself with ire \\e said — " I was unconscious 
in sleep— still soiled with anger thou hast hurled the fiery 
curse against me like the second rod of Yama. There- 
fore, O ascetic, thy person shall remain senseless for a 
long time. That king and the ascetic having thus impre- 
cated one another under the influence of anger, tfyey imme- 
diately were deprived of their bodies. 


— 00r 

XI EARING the words of the effulgent R£ma, Lakshmana^ 
the slayer of enemies, said with fqlded hands : — "Having 
thus cast off their bodies how did that Brahman worshipped 
of the celestials and the king regain them ? M Having been 
thus accosted by Lakshmana, Rama, the descendant of 
Ikshwakus and the foremost of men, replied : — "Having 
renounced their persons both Nimi and the pious Vasishtha, 
having asceticism for their we^Hb, were metamorphosed intot 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1742 RAM AY ANA. 

air. Thereupon being thus deprived of his body the highly 
effulgent and great ascetic Vasishtha went to the Patriarch 
Brahma with the object of acquiring from him another. 
Being merged in the air, he, conversant with religion, 
bowed unto his father and said : — (i O illustrious god of gods \ 
O thou lotus-sprung ! by the imprecation of Nimi I have 
been now deprived of my body and been converted into 
air. O lord, the state of being bodiless is highly painful 
to all. The bodiless cannot perform any work ; do thou, 
therefore, by thy favour, grant me another body. "Where- 
to the self-sprung Brahma, of unmitigated prowess, replied. 
"O great one, do thou enter into the vital energy of Mitra 
and Varuna; and even then, O foremost of twice-born ones, 
thou shalt not be born of a woman and being greatly pious 
shalt attain to the rank of a patriarch." The Patriarch 
Brahma having said this, Vasishtha, saluting and 
circumambulating him, repaired to the region of Varuna. 
At that time Mitra in conjunction with Varuna was reigning 
in Varuna's kingdom being worshipped by all celestials. 
Meanwhile encircled by her mates the leading Apsara arrived 
there at her pleasure. Beholding the frolicsome and 
beautiful Urvasi, Varuna attained to an excess of delight. 
Thereupon he expressed his intention of living with that queen 
of Apsaras, having a moon-like countenance and lotus-eyes. 
Thereat Urvasi, with folded hands, said — "O lord of celestials, 
Mitra himself has already invited me for the same." Being 
stricken by desire Varuna said to Urvasi "I shall discharge 
my vital energy into this pot if thou dost not wish to live 
with me." Hearing those sweet words of the Patriarch 
Varuna, Urvasi was highly pleased and said : — "Do what 
thou hast said. Now my body is under the possession of 
Mitra — but my mind is attached unto thine and thou art 
equally attached unto me." Urvasi having said this, Varuna 
discharged his vital energy into the pot. Thereupon Urvasi 
approached Mitra. And thereat highly enraged he said to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


ker "I invited thee first ; O thou of vicious actions, why hasti 
tkou, renouncing me, secured another. For this vile action, 
tkou sbalt, by my curse live in the land of mortals for some 
time. The royal saint PuruvftrS, the king of Kasi, is the 
son of Budha. Do thou go to him, thou of a vicious 
tctellect ; he shall be thy husband." Thereupon being thus 
placed under the influence of cur9e Urvasi went to Puruvara, 
The king Puruvara was the begotten son of Budha. He 
reigned in the foremost of cities Pratishtaro. He begot on 
Urvasi a highly powerful and beautiful son by the name of 
Ava. Nahusha, powerful as Indra, was the son of Ayu, 
When Indra, the king of the celestials, was assailed with 
thunderbolt by the Asura Vitra,Nahusha governed his kingdom 
for a hundred thousand years, fn this wise Urvasi, having 
beautiful teeth, eyes and brow, remained on earth for many 
years and then returned to the region of Indra after the 
period of curse had been over. 



. earing this wonderful and heavenlv theme Lafesn-' 
tnana was highly gratified and said to Rama " O Kakuthstha, 
how did that twice-born, one worshipped by the celestials 
and the king regain their bodies, after being bodiless." 
Hearing the words of Lakshmana, Rama, having truth for his 
prowess, began to relate the story of Vasishtha. " O foremsot 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1744 & AM AY AN A. 

of Raghus, there spang up two fdreniost Brahmin saintsj 
from the vital energy discharged by the high-souled Mitral 
and Varuna into the pot. At first therefrom rose up the: 
illustrious Rishi Agastya and saying ' I am not thine son" 
went away leaving Mitra. Before the vital energy of 
Varuna was thrown into the pot Mitra discharged his bwn ori 
Urvasi's account which was trie source of Agdstya's birth. 
Into the pot in which Mitra' s energy was discharged Varuni 
also put his owrt,arid bdth the energies were mixed up. There- 
upon after some time from the energies of bbth Mitra* ana 
Vafiina sprang up the efifuIgeHt Vasisntha— the priest of Iksh- 
awkus. O gentle one, the highly effulgent Ikshawku Appoint- 
ed that blameless feishi as the f>ribst bf our family as soon as 
he was born. I have thus described to you the story of 
Vasislitha's birth possessing a wbnderful body. Hear now 
what befell the kirig Ninii. And Betibidirig the king Nimi 
bodiless the intelligent Rishi initiated Him into the rites 
of sacrifice. And those leading twice-born ones, with as- 
sembled citizens and s ervants, began to protect that body 
with unguents, garlands and clothes. Thereupon at the end 
bf the sacrifice Vrigu said " O king, I am propitiated witH 
thee ; I shall restore thee to senses." Thereupon the celes- 
tials, highly pleased, addressed the cotiscibtisrtesis of Nimi 
saying "O royal Saint, do thou accept boons ; where shall we 
JDlace thy consciousness ?" Thereupon being addressed by 
the celestials the consciousness said "I. may live iti the eyes 
bf the celestials." They agreed to it and said "O lord of 
earth; for thee, their eyes shall be influenced within a moment. 
The exhaustion, that their eyes shall experience on account 
bf thy moving about as the air, shall be removed within this 
moment." Having said this the celestials repaired to their 
respective quarters and the high-souled Rishis having 
conveyed Nimi's bbdy to the sacrificial ground and dedicated 
it as an edy began to churn it with great energy accom- 
panied by ihcahtatibhs. They being thus engaged in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


chortling the edy for the purpose of having a son of Nimi 
there sprang up a son of devout austerities. He was called 
Mithi for he originated from Manthana ; he was called 
Janma for his having sprung up* from Janan and Vaideha 
from having been born from Videha. In this wise Janaka, 
the first king of Videhas, was born. His other name was 
Jftthi and his family were celebrated as Maithilas. 
gentle one, I have thus related unto thee the wondrous births, 
in consequence of the curse, of the great ascetic Vasishtha 
and the royal saint Nimi. 


— 00 — 

J^VAMA having said this, Lakshmana, the slayer of 
enemies, burning in his native effulgence, said : — "O fore- 
most of kings, this ancient account of the ascetic Vasishtha 
and the king Nimi is highly surprising and wonderful. But 
Nimi is a Kshatrya king and a hero — besides although 
initiated he did not forgive the high-souled Vasishtha." 
Being thus accosted RSma, the Kshatrya-chief, said to the 
effulgent Lakshmana conversant with all Sastras — "O hero, 
forgiveness is not to be seen in all men, O Saumitri, do 
thou hear attentively, the unbearable angor which was 
forgiven by the king Yayati resorting to the quality of good- 
ness. Yayati, the enhancer of the prosperity of cities, was 
the son of Nahusha. He had two beautiful wives, one of 
whom was SarmishlhS, grand daughter of Aditi, the daughter 
of Brishaparva. She was the more beloved of the two ; his 

Digitized b\ 


i 7 46 RAM AY AN A. 

other spouse was Devajani, grand daughter of Usanas. She 
was not liked by her husband. Both of them gave birth to a 
son each and both the sons were beautiful and attentive. Puru 
was born of Sarmishtha and Yadu of Devajani. Puru was 
the favourite son of the king, both on account of his mother 
and of his personal graces. Thereat Yadu, greatly sorry, 
said to his mother : — " Born in the race of the illustrious 
Vargava of unwearied actions, thou art going through mental 
afflictions and unbearable insults ; therefore, O mother, let us 
both enter into fire. Let the king spend many nights with 
Sarmishtha — the daughter of a demon. Thou mayst withstand 
the insults but I shall never brooke them. Permit me, I shall, 
in sooth, renounce my life." The son having, weepingly and 
distressingly, said this, Devajani was greatly enraged and 
thought of her father. As soon as he was thought of 
by his daughter Vargava speedily came there and 
beholding her senseless and deprived from joy said 
"Daughter, what is the matter ?" The effulgent 
father having addressed his daughter repeatedly in this 
wise, Devajani, enraged, replied : — "O foremost of ascetics, 
I shall either enter into fire water or drink poison — by no 
means I shall preserve this life of mine. Thou dost not 
know of the miseries and insults I have been subject to. 
Brahman, when a tree is neglected, those who live thereon 
are also distressed. The king having disregarded me, 
forsooth thou hast also been neglected." Hearing the words 
of his daughter, Vargava, enraged said to the king Yayati .— 
"Thou art vicious-minded, O son of Nahusha ; thou hast 
dishonored me and therefore in thy youth thou shaltbe subject 
to decrepitude and infirmities of age." Having thus impre- 
cated the curse and consoled his sorrowful daughter the 
highly illustrious rishi Vargava repaired to his own habitation. 
Having thus conferred solace unto his daughter, that leading 
Brahman, effulgent as the sun, returned therefrom. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


— 00 — 

X AY ATi, the son of Nahusha, was greatly distressed on 
hearing of the ire of the preceptor Sukra. Thereupon meet- 
ing with the infirmities of age by the imprecation of the 
saint he said to his son Yadu : — "O Yadu, thou art cognizant 
of religion, do thou therefore take this decripitude for me ; 
I shall satisfy myself with various enjoyments. O foremost 
of men, I have not been yet satiated with worldly enjoy- 
ments — I shall therefore again take upon myself this decrepi- 
tude after having enjoyed all objects of sense." Hearing 
those words of YaySti, the foremost of men, Yadu replied : — 
"Let thy most favourite son Puru take upon himself this 
decrepitude. O king, thou hast deprived me from all 
things — what more, thou dost not allow me to come near thee. 
Let that Puru take this, with whom thou dost eat and live." 
Hearing the words of Yadu, Yayati said to Puru : — "O thou 
having large arms, do thou take the decrepitude for me." 
Hearing the words of YaySLti, Puru, with folded hands, said : — 
"I am always ready to satisfy thy commands ; and I have 
been favoured and honored by this command of thine." 
Hearing those words of Puru YaySti was highly pleased and 
attained to an excess of delight and then transferred his 
own decrepitude to him. Thereupon regaining his youth 
the king reigned in earth for many thousand years celebrat- 
ing thousands of sacrifices. Thereupon after a long time 
YaySti said to Puru "O my son, do thou bring the decrepitude 
I have kept as deposit with thee — let it now assail me. I 
transferred it to you as a deposit. For this I shall take it 
back ; be not sorry for this. I have been greatly pleased 
that thou hast satisfied my behests. I shall, now pleased, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1748 RAM AY ANA. 

install thee on the royal throne.'' Having thus addressed 
his son Puru, the king Yayati angrily said to Yadu, the son 
of Devayani : — 'Thou, vicious Rakhasa, art born of me in 
the snaps of a Kshatrya, or else why shouldst thou disobey 
my orders ? For this thou shalt never be a king. I am thy 
father and preceptor and still thou hast disregarded me. 
Thou shalt be the father of dreadful Rakshasas, O vici- 
ous minded ; thy descendants shall be degraded from the 
lunar race and thy children shall be equally vicious-minded 
like thee." Having thus imprecated Yadu, the royal saint 
Yayati honored Puru, the enhancer of the prosperity of the 
kingdom, with installation and then retired to woods. 
Thereupon after a long time he breathed his last and went 
to the abode of the celestials. The highly illustrious Puru 
reigned piously in the foremost of cities Prathishtan. Yadu 
begot thousands and thousands of Rakhasas and being 
degraded from the royal family reigned in a city named 
Kraunchavana, hard to be got at. In this wise, according 
to the custom of the Kshatryas the king Yayati took upon 
himself the imprecation of the preceptor Sukra, but he did 
not forgive him. I have thus related unto thee everything. 
O gentle one, we shall follow the examples of these illustrious 
men. And in that case we shall not be degraded like the 
king Nriga." While Rama, having a moon-like countenance, 
was speaking thus, the stars became fewer in the welkin, and 
east, stricken with the early rays of the sun, appeared like 
damsel, clothed in a raiment coloured with the dye of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




X HEREUPON having performed the morning rites the 
loins-eyed R£ma, in the early morning, sat on his royal throne 
and in the company of Brahmanas and citizens enaged in 
looking into state affairs. The assembly consisted of the 
priest Vasishtha, the saint Kashyapa, ministers well versed 
in politics, other religious preceptors, moralists, members 
and kings. The assembly of R&ma, of unwearied, actions 
appeared like that of Mahendra, Yama and Varuna. 
Rima said to Lakshmana, gifted with auspicious marks "O 
O Saamitri having long arms, do thou proceed to the city- 
gate to receive those who have come here for business." 
According to R&ma's command Lakshmana, gifted with 
auspicious mark, arrived at the gate and called those who had 
come there for business. But none said that he had been 
brought there by any business. For there was neither 
desease nor proverty in the kingdom. During R&ma's regeme, 
the earth was filled with corns and Asadhis. Children 
youngmen and middle-aged people did not meet with death- 
The earth was governed piously so there was no obstacle. 
Thus during the administration of Rlma none was seen who- 
wanted justice. Lakshmana, with folded hands, said to R&ma, 
"None has come for business." Thereat, Rlma, with a 
delighted heart, replied • — "Do thou go, O Saumitri, and see 
if any one has come for business. Royal policy if properly 
adopted, impiety can stand nowhere. It is for the fear of the 
king that people protect one another. And although laws, 
instituted by me are protecting the subjects like so many 
arrows, still, thou having long arms, do thou be engaged in 

Digitized by^OO* 

1750 RAM AY AN A. 

governing the subjects." Being thus addressed Lakshmini 
issued out of the house and saw that a dog was waiting at 
the gate. Casting its looks around it was again and again 
barking. Beholding it in that plight the valiant Lakshmana 
said "O generous sir, what business has brought thee hither 
— do thou relate it confidentially/' Hearing the words of 
Lakshmana the dog replied — "I wish to relate it unto Rama, 
of unwearied actions,who is the refuge of all creatures and who 
declares fearlessness unto all. Hearing the words of the dog 
Lakshmana entered the beautiful palace to relate it unto 
Rama. And having communicated it unto Rama he issued 
out and said to the dog : — "If thou hast anything true to 
speak thou mayst come and communicate it unto the king." 
Hearing the words of Lakshmana the dog said — "We cannot 
enter into the houses of divinities, kings and Brahmanas nor 
can we go there where is fire, Indra, the sun or the wind, 
for we are the vilest born ; so I cannot enter there. For king 
is the personification of virtue and specially the king Rama 
is truthful, well versed in the science of fighting and ever 
engaged in the welfare of all beings. He is perfectly cogni- 
zant of where the six qualities are to be applied — master of 
morality, knoweth all, seeth all and the best of beautiful. He 
is the moon, death, Yama, Kuvera, the giver of riches, fire, 
Indra, the sun and Varuna. O Saumitri, do thou go and 
communicate unto the king protecting his subjects that 
without his permission I do not wish to go there." There- 
upon the highly effulgent and noble-minded Lakshmana 
entered the palace and said to Rama : — "O thou having long 
arms; O thou the enhancer of Kausalya's joy — I have 
communicated thine orders — I shall relate shortly everything 
regarding that ; do thou hear. That dog, as a beggar, is 
waiting at the gate for thy commands." Whereto R&ma 
replied : — "Bring him speedily here who is waiting at the 
gate for business" 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



— 00 — 


.EARING the words of Rama the intelligent Lakshmana 
immediately sent for the dog and informed Rama, who, 
on beholding it, said — "Do thou communicate thy desire 
unto me ; be not afraid." Thereupon beholding the king 
R£rna, the dog, having his head cut off, said "The king is 
the protector of animals and their lord. The king is 
awake when the subjects are asleep and he protects them. 
By administering the laws properly the king protects piety. 
Without his shelter the subjects meet with destruction. The 
king is the lord and father of the whole universe. He is 
time, he is Yuga and he is the creation, mobile and immobile. 
He is called Dharma because he holdeth all. It is Dharma 
(virtue) that upht>ldeth all mankind. It is by Dharma that 
the three worlds are being preserved. It is Dharma or virtue 
that thwarts the enemies. It is virtue that governs the 
subjects duly. It is for this that virtue is called Dhirana 
or the holder. The virtue of preservation is the greatest and 
confers fruits in after life. There is nothing like virtue hard 
to acquire in this world. Charity, kindness, honoring the 
pious and innocent conduct constitute the chief virtues ; for 
by those the well-being of this life and the next is brought 
about. O Raghava, O thou of firms vows — thou art an example 
of examples. Thou art cognizant of the conduct of the pious. 
Thou art like an occean, the refuge of all virtues. O fore- 
most of kings, out of ignorace, I have spoken unto thee so 
many things. With my head downwards, I beg for thy satis- 
faction. Be not offended with me." Hearing those wise words 
of the dog, Rama said :— "What shall I do for thee ? 

Digit^d by G00gk 

1752 RAM AY ANA. 

Do thou mention it confidentially/' Whereto the deg re- 
plied, saying : — " It is by piety that a king governs his 
kingdom — it is by virtue that a king protects his subjects, 
becomes a refuge unto all and removes the fear of his men. 
Keeping an eye on this, O Rama do thou hear, what I .'say. 
In the house of a certain Brahman there lives a beggar by 
the name of Sarvarthasiddha (i.e., who has got all his 
desires satisfied). And although I am innocent, he has for 
nothing hurt me.'' Hearing those words Rama sent his 
messenger who brought Sarvarthasiddha, master of all 
subjects. Thereupon beholding Rama in the assembly that 
effulgent and leading twice- born one said : — " O blameless 
Rama, tell me what I shall do for thee." Whereto Rama 
said — " O twice-born one, thou hast hurt this dog. What 
offence did it commit by thee that thou didst strike it 
severely with a rod. Anger is an enemy which taketh away 
lfe. Anger is a sweet-speeched enemy in the garb of a 
friend. It is the foremost of passions and like unto a sharp 
dagger. And it is anger that stealeth away every thing. It 
pilfers all that is acquired by asceticism, sacrifices and gifts. 
It is proper therefore by every jneans to kill anger. Passions 
are running amock on all sides like so many exceedingly 
wicked steeds. Being satiated with of all objects of enjoy- 
ments it is better to govern them by patience. By mind, 
actions, words and eyes a man should engage in the well 
being of people. He should not injure any body and be 
not addicted to any thing. The harm, that a mind not 
under control, can accomplsh, is beyond the range of a sharp 
dagger, trodden serpent and of an enemy always enraged. 
Even the nature of one, who has learnt humility, cannot be 
trusted. He, who hides his nature, himself reveals his true 
self." Rama, of unweared actions, having said this, Sarvartka, 
siddha i the foremost of twice-born ones, said : — "Knocking 
about whole day for alms I was highly enraged and struck 
this dog. It was sitting in the mid-way and I asked 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


it again and again to move away. Thereupon, moving away 
and standing with reluctance, it stood fearfully en the road- 
side. O descendant of Raghu, I was at that time stricken 
with hunger, and struck it for its vicious conduct. O king 
of kings, I am guilty in this, and thou must punish me. O lord 
of kings, do thou administer punishment unto me, — I shall 
then be released from the fear of hell." Thereupon, Rama 
asked all the ministers, saying : — "What is to be done now ? 
What punishment is to be inflicted on him ? We can protect 
subjects, if we can administer punishment proportionate to 
crime." Thereat, Vrigu, Angiras, Kutsa, Vasishtha, 
K&shya and other ascetics, the leading preachers, the 
ministers, the citizens, and other sages conversant with 
Sastras, present there, said : — "A Brahmana should not be 
punished with death." The sages conversant with lawg 
having said this, the ascetics addressed Rama, saying : — 
"O Raghava, a king is the governor of all — specially thyself. 
Thou art the chastiser of the three worlds, the eternal 
Vishnu." They all having said this, the dog began : — "Thou 
didst solemnly say What shall I do for thee ?' Therefore* 
if tho'i art gratified with me, and if thou dost wish td 
confer boons on me, do thou appoint this Brahmana as the 
head of family." Thereupon, having been thus honored and 
pleased and ascending an elephant, he proceeded to occupy 
his new dignified station. At this, the councillors of 
Rama, surprised, said : — "O thou of great effulgence, he has 
not been punished. Rather thou hast conferred on him a 
boon." Hearing the words of ministers, Rama said : — "You 
do not know the real truth of the whole thing — the dog 
knows it well." Being accosted by Rama, the dog 
said : — "O Raghava, I was the head of the family of 
Kalanjava. After the worship of the deities and Brahmana 
and the feasting of the servants, male, and female, I used to 
take my food. I used to parcel out things duly, and my mind 
was not in the least attached to sin. I used to preserve with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1754 RAM AY AN A. 

great care the articles belonging to the tutelary deities, was 
humble, good-natured and engaged in the well-being of all 
animals. Still I have fallen into this dreadful and wretched 
condition. O RSghava, this Br&hmana is angry by nature, 
and impious, injures others, and is impatient, cruel, harsh in 
words and ignorant, and therefore shall degrade his seven 
generations up and down. He will by no means be able to 
discharge the duties of a head of a family. He, whom thou 
wishest to take to hell with her son, beasts and friends, should 
be engaged in the serving the Brahmans and kine. For all his 
good actions, he is slain who steals the wealth of a Brahmana, 
a deity, a woman, and a boy, and the riches given away by him. 
O R&ghava,one who pilfers the riches of a Brahmana or a deity 
falls into a hell called Vichi. Even he who thinks in 
his mind of stealing it,goes once and again into hell." Hearing 
the words of the dog, the eyes of the effulgent R&ma were 
expanded with surprise. The dog went back from where it 
had come. In its pristine birth the dog was high-minded — 
it is now cursed for being born in a degraded state of 
existence. Thereupon, repairing at last to V&rSnasi the dog 
took the vow of fasting. 


X HERE lived for a long time a vulture and an owl on 
a mountain expending over the banks of a river, resonant 
with the notes of cuckoos and filled "with lions, tigers and 
various birds, situated in a pleasant forest abounding in trees 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


near the city of Ayodhyi. Once on a time the vicious 
vulture alleging that the nest of the owl was his own, tegan 
to quarrel with him. O worshipful Sir, thereupon they both 
said : — "The lotus-eyed Rama is the king of all people ; 
let us go to him and he will decide to whom the nest 
tx lo.igs." Having thus settled the vulture and the owl, 
being impatient with rage, quarrelling with one another, 
appeared before R&ma and touched his feet. Behold- 
ing that lord of men, the vultureVsaid : "O preserver of 
humanity, thou art the foremost, of celestials • and Asuras. 
O thou of great effulgence, thou art gifted with intelligence 
and learning more than Vrihaspati and Sukrich&rya. Thou 
art cognisant of the good and bad conditions of creatures. 
In beauty thou art like the Moon and art irrespressible like the 
Sun. In glory thou art like Himalaya, in gravity like the 
Ocean, in prowess like the Patriarch, in patience like the 
Earth, and in velocity like the Wind. O Raghava, thou art 
the preceptor of the mobile and immobile creation, gifted 
with all sorts of wealth, illustrious, devoid of a revengeful 
spirit, unconquerable, victorious, and master of all S&stras 
and laws. O foremost of men, hear. I have an application 
to thee. O Raghava, I had built a nest for myself ; this 
owl is now occupying it as his own ; therefore, O king, do 
thou save me." The vulture having said this, the owl 
began : — "True, it is, O king, that in him are the portions 
of the Moon, Indra, the Sun, Kuvera and Yama, but there 
b in him also a portion of man. But thou art thyself the 
omnipresent deity, N&rayana. Thou, impelled by thine own 
self, dost judge all creatures impartially ; therefore, a 
portion of gentleness is well manifest in thee and therefore 
do people call thee, a portion of the Moon. O patriarch, in 
anger, punishment, gift and fear, thou art our giver, destroyer 
and protector, — it is for this that thou art called Indra. In 
energy thou art like fire irrepressible unto all creaturef, and 
because thou dost spread thy lusture upon all creatures, that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

175° RAM AY AN A. 

thou art called the Sun. Thou art the very lord of riches 
or art even superior to Kuvera ; like Padma unto the lord of 
riches, Sri is always by thee. Because thou dost discharge 
the functions of Kuvera, thou art the giver of wealth unto 
us. O Raghava, thou lookest upon all creatures, mobile 
and immobile, with an impartial eye — thou dost regard thy 
friends and foes with impartiality, and thou art duly protecting 
thy subjects. O Raghava, death pursues him with whom 
thou art offended — and it is for this reason that thou art 
styled by people 'the highly powerful Yama.' O foremost of 
kings, because thou art forgiving unto all creatures and 
a kind king that people sing thy glories as of a man on earth. 
The king is the strength of the weak and helpless and he 
is the eye of the blind and the refuge of those who have no 
shelter. Thou art also our king ; therefore do thou listen 
to our petition. O king, entering into my nest, this vulture 
is oppressing me. Thou only, O foremost of men, art the 
divine chastiser of mankind." Hearing those words, Rama 
sent for his councillors. The ministers of Dacaratha 
and Rama, Vrishthi, Yayanta, Vijaya, Siddhartha, Rashtra- 
varddhana, Asoka, Darmapala the highly powerful 
Sumantra and others were well versed in laws, high-minded, 
conversant with all the Sastras, intelligent, born in respect- 
able families, and adepts in counsel. Having invited them 
all and ascending his Pushpaka car, he went to the place in 
question, and, descending there, asked the vulture, "How long 
has this nest been made ? Tell me, if thou remember 
it." Whereto the vulture replied : — "From the time when 
mankind were first born and spread over the four quarters 
of the globe have I been living in this nest." The owl also 
-^^ said : — "At the time when the earth was (first) adorned with 
^^k trees that this-nest of mine was constructed." Hearing these 
\pords, Rama said to the councillors : — "That assembly is not 
p assembly where there are no friends — nor are they old 
hen who do not dwell upon religious topics. That religion 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


is not a religion where there is no truth 
and that truth is not the truth where there is 
hypocrisy. Those councillors are liars who do not give 
proper replies in time on the subjects they are well-informed 
on. He who does give reply to a question under the 
influence of passion, anger or fear, binds himself with 
a thousand nooses of Varuna, and at the expiration of full 
one year he is released from a single sin." Hearing these 
words, the ministers said to RSma : — "O thou having a large 
mind, what the owl has said is true — the vulture has not 
spoken the truth. Thou art the evidence this, O great 
king — for the king is the last refuge of all — the root of the 
subject and the eternal religion. He who is punished by 
the king, is not doomed to a degraded state. He is, in 
truth, saved from the fear of hell and reaches a better state." 
Hearing the words of the ministers, RSLma said : — "Hear 
what is mentioned in the PurSnas. Formerly the Sun, the 
Moon, the welkin with the stars, the earth with the mountains 
and forests — the three worlds, the mobile and the immobile, 
were under water. At that time only N&rSyana existed as 
th* second Sumeru. In NUrSyana's belly was stationed 
the earth with Lakshmi. Having destroyed the 
creation and entered water, the highly effulgent Vishnu, 
identical with the souls of creatures, lay asleep there for 
many long years. Beholding Vishnu asleep after the 
destruction of the universe and knowing Vishnu of obstruct- 
ed breath, the great ascetic BrahmS entered his abdomen. 
Thereupon, when a golden lotus sprang from Vishnu's navel. 
That great lord, ascetic Brahm&, originated therefrom and 
was engaged in austere penances for the purpose 6f creating 
earth, air, mountains, trees, men, reptiles and all animals 
born from womb or egg. At that time from the ears of 
N&r&yana originated two valiant and dreadful demons under 
the name of Madhu and Kaitabha. Beholding the Patriarch, 
there they were greatly enraged, and pursued him. Thereat, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


175S RAM AY AN A. 

the self-born cried aloud hideously. Awakened by that sound, 
Narayana engaged in fighting with Madhu and Kaitabha, and 
slew them with his discus. And with their gore the whole 
earth was deluged. Thereupon, purifying the earth again, 
Hari, preserver of the world, covered it with trees. 
And various drugs were also created. And the earth 
was called Medini because it was filled with Medas 
marrow of Madhu and Kaitabha. It is for this that I hold, 
O ministers, that this house does not belong to the vulture, 
but to the owl. Therefore, this vicious vulture 
should be punished — for this wicked, vicious-minded one, 
robbing another's nest, is oppressing him." In the interval 
a voice was heard in the sky stating the true facts : — 
•'O Rama, do not slay the vulture, — for it has already been 
reduced to ashes by the force of Gautama's asceticism. 
O lord of men, this vulture, in its pristine birth, was a heroic 
truthful and pure king by the name of Brahmadatta. Once 
on a time a Brhamana, by the name of Gautama, the very 
personification of Kala, came to the house of Brahmadatta 
for food and said : — 'O king, I shall feed in thy 
house for more than a hundred years/ Thereupon, offering 
that effulgent Brahmana, with his own hands, water to wash 
his feet the king Brahmadatta,made arrangements for his meal. 
Accidentally flesh. was mixed with the food of the high- 
souled Gautama. Being enraged thereat, the ascetic 
imprecated him with a dreadful curse and said: — r O king, 
thou become a vulture.' The king said : — 'Be propitiated, 
O thou of great vows ; do not imprecate me thus. I have, 
out of ignorance committed this offence. O great one, 
O blameless one, do thou act so that this curse 
may find termination/ Thereat understanding that 
this offence was committed by the king unwittingly, the 
ascetic said — 'O king, in the race of Ikshawkus a king shall 
be born under the name of Rama. O foremost of men, thou 
alt be released from the curse when he shall touch thee/ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Hearing the voice in the sky, Rama touched Brahmadatta. 
Thereupon renouncing his venture from and assuming a 
beautiful body smeared with celestial perfumes, he praised 
Rama and said : — "O thou conversant with piety, by thy 
favour have I been saved from the dreadful hell — here hath 
coded my curse." 


,/TLS Rama and Lakshmana were (daily} engaged in 
conversing thus, the vernal night, neither hot nor cold, came 
on. And it came to pass that one bright morning, after 
having performed his first diurnal rites, Kakutstha, under- 
standing the ways of the citizens, became anxious to present 
himself at a spot whence he could observe the citizens. At 
this time Sumantra, entering, addressed him, saying, — "O 
king, stopped at the gate, some ascetics stay there, — 
Afaharshis, led by Bhargava and Chyavana. And, O mighty 
monarch, eager for a sight of thee, those dwellers on the 
banks of the Yarnuna, well pleased, have despatched mc 
(hither), O tiger among men." Hearing his words, the 
righteous Rama answered : " Let the exalted Dwijas enter." 
Thereat, honoring the royal mandate, the warder with joined 
hands brought those ascetics difficult of being approached. 
And numbering over an hundred, flaming up in their native 
effulgence, those high-souled anchorets entered the royal 
residence. And they presented Rama with various fruits in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tj6o RAM AY AN A. 

profusion and vessels filled with sanctified waters 
of* all holy spots. Thereupon, accepting the waters of the 
holy places as well as the various kinds of fruit, that mighty- 
armed one spake to the mighty ascetics : "Do ye agreeably 
to desert take these seats." Hearing Rama's speech, all 
the Maharshis sat down on those graceful and elegant 
golden seats. And seeing the saints seated there, that captor 
of hostile capitals, Raghava, restraining himself, with joined 
hands, observed :" What is the reason of your visit ? What 
shall I needfully perform for you ? I am worthy of being 
commanded by the Maharshis ; and I must without demur 
compass every pleasure of theirs. And this entire monarchy, 
and the life that is resident in my heart, — all these are for the 
regenerate ones. This I tell you in the name of truth." 
Hearing his words, the sages of fierce austerities inhabiting 
the banks of the Yamuna, broke out into a peal of plaudits. 
And those high-souled ones, exceedingly rejoiced, said :" On 
earth, O crown of men, this can only be expected from thee 
and nobody else. Many kings wielding great. power have 
passed away who, having regard to the (possible) gravity 
of the undertaking, could not bring themselves to promise 
anything befoiehand. But, without knowing he task, thou 
hast bound thyself by a promise for the glory of the Bramanas. 
And thou, without doubt, wilt succeed in effecting the work ; 
and it behoveth thee to deliver the sages from a mighty 
f right." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




HEN the sages had spoken thus, Kakutstha said : " O 
ascetics, tell me what is the work which I shall have to accom- 
plish in your behalf. Your fear shall be removed. "' As 
Kakutstha was speaking thus, Bhargava remarked ! "O lord 
of men, do thou hear of the origin of the fear that threatens 
our country. O king, formerly in the Krita age, there was 
a magnanimous offspring of Diti, the mighty Asura, Madu, 
eldest son of Lota. He was well disposed towards 
Br&hmanas, kind to those seeking his refuge, and gifted with 
high intelligence. The exceedingly generous deities delighted 
in him greatly. And by way of honoring him, Rudra con- 
ferred a wonderful boon upon Madhu endowed with prowess 
and ever intent on religion. And extracting a dart from* 
his own, possessed of terrific energy, endowed with great 
force, and furnished with exceeding splendour,that high-souled 
one, well pleased, made it over (to Madhu) and spoke to him. 
Thou hast practised excellent and unrivalled righteousness, 
which hath won my good graces., and (therefore), I, highly 
gratified, bestow on thee this choice weapon. So long as 
thou, O mighty Asura, dost rot assail celestials and Vipras, 
so long shall this be thine, — otherwise it shall come to naught. 
Reducing to cinders the person that shall rashly enter upon 
conflict with thee, this dart shall return to thy hand." Having 
thus obtained the boon from Rudra, the mighty Asura, again 
bowing to Mahadeva, addressed him, saying : "O reverend 
one, may this excellent dart be the possession of my family 
O god, thou art the lord of the immortals/ Thereat the lord 
of all beings, the mighty deity Siva, answered Madhu, when 
he had spoken thus : 'This will not br. But in order 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i 7 62 RAM AY AN A. 

that thy prayer may not go for nothing, I graciously say in 
thy behalf that one of thy sons shall sway this dart. So 
long that dart-handed one shall be incapable of being 
destroyed by any creature. 1 Having obtained this 
wonderful boon from the god, Madhu — foremost of Asuras — • 
caused a splendid city to be constructed. His beloved wife 
the exalted and majestic Kumbhinasi is the offspring of 
Vicwavasu by Anal*. Her son, the highly powerful wicked, 
and fierce La van a, ever since his boyhood, gave himself up to 
a sinful course of life. Seeing his son, committed to an 
impious course Madhu was overcome with grief, but he did 
not say anything to him. And forsaking this world, he 
entered the region of Varuna ; and making over the dart 
unto Lavana, communicated to him all about the boon he 
had obtained. And by virtue of the power of the dart, he 
oppresseth the three worlds in especial the ascetics ; such is 
the power of Lavana, and such is his dart. Hearing all this 
O Klkutstha, thou art capable (of righting our wrong.) 
Thou art our chief resource. O R£ma many a monarch hath 
been already sued by the sages, O hero, to deliver them from 
this fear, — but we have not yet found a deliverer. Hearing, 
O child, that R&vana together with all his forces and vehicles 
hath been destroyed (by thee), we know that there breathes 
not another king on earth capable of delivering us. 
Therefore our prayer is that thou mayst deliver us afflicted 
with the fear of I*avana. Thus, O R£ma, have we acquainted 
thee with the occasion of fear that hath arisen. Thou art 
capable of coping with the same. Do thou of undeteriorated 
prowess, do the needful." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




J.HUS accosted (by the sages), RSma answered them 
with joined hands : " What doth he live on ? What are 
his ways? And where doth Lavana live?" Hearing 
Righava's words, the sages informed him of the way in 
which Lavana increased in power. His food is every creature 
specially ascetics ; his manner of life is regulated by ferocity 
and his constant home is Madhuvana. Slaying constantly 
thousands on thousands of lions and tigers and deer, and 
birds and huaian beings, he provides his daily food (with 
their flesh.) And like the Destroyer on the occasion of the 
universal dissolution, that one possessed of gigantic strength 
feeds on other creatures as well." Hearing this, R&ghava 
spoke to the mighty ascetics : " I will slay that Raksha. Let 
your fright depart." Having thus bound himself with that 
promise to the asetics of fierce energy, Raghu's son along 
with his brothers spoke : " What hero shall slay Lavana ? Do 
you decide this. On whom shall devolve this duty ? Whether 
the mighty armed Bharata or the intelligent Satrughna shall 
(do this work ?)" Thus addressed by R&ghava Bharata 
remarked : " I will slay this. Let this task be entrusted to 
me." Hearing Bharata's speech instinct with fortitude and 
valor, the younger brother of Laksbmana stood up, leaving 
his golden seat. And Satrughna, saluting the king 
represented: "The mighty-armed second son of Raghu 
hath already achieved a grand worjc : he formerly 
governed Ayodhya empty of the noble one,* bearing 
in his heart the grief connected with his • return. 

* Rama. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1764 RAM AY AN A. 

Undergoing many a hardship, king, that illustrious one 
passed his days, fying down on a bed of sorrow, and living 
on fruits and roots, and wearing rags. Having suffered such 
misery, Raghu's son should not be suffered to undergo 
trouble, while, O king I his servant is by." On Satrughna 
saying this, Raghava again said : " Let this be so. Do thou 
do my bidding. I shall install thee on the graceful city of 
Madhu ; or if thou wish without and entrust Bharata with 
this task, O long-armed one. Heroic, and accomplished, thou 
art cometent to found a city on the Yamuna as well as 
flourishing provinces. He that, having people's 

dominion, doth not furnish it with a king, goeth to hell. So 
if thou accept my words, then slaying Madhu's son, the 
sinful Lavana,rule the kingdom righteously. O hero, thou must 
say anything after what I have spoken. Without doubt, a 
youthful younger brother must obey the injunctions of his 
elder brother. Do thou, O Kakutstha, accept the installation 
which I confer on the, preluded by the prescribed religious 
formulae uttered by Vipras headed by Vasishtha." — 



X HUS accosted by Rama,the exceedingly energetic Satru- 
ghna was powerfully wrought up with bashfulness, and replied 
slowly: "O lord of men, this doth not appear to be in 
consonance with morality. Wherefore, an elder brother 
existing, wouldst thou install a younger one ? I must, O 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


best of men, do thy behest ; for, exalted one, thy mandate 
can never be passed by me. O hero, I have heard from thee 
as well as from the Sruti (touching the morality concerned).* 
When ray second brother had already vowed (that he would 
slay Lavana), I ought not to have returned the answer I 
actually have. I saying, — 'I will in battle slay the dreadful 
Lavana/ I have been guilty of an unrighteous speech. And 
it is for this transgression that, O powerful one, 1 shall have 
to undergo this improper process. But, albeit this course 
is unrighteous and entails perdition, yet desired by my eldest 
brother, I certainly ought not to make any answer. And, O 
Kikutstha, a second answer I would not return ; so that, 
O bestower of honor, I may not, by a second reply, render 
myself liable to a fresh punishment. In this matter, O chief 
of men, I will even do thy desire. Do thou, O descendant 
of Raghu, so order that sin may not be mine (in having 
obeyed thy mandate.) ,, Thus addressed by the heroic and 
high-souled Satrughna, R&ma, delighted, spoke unto Bharata 
and Lakshmana, — "Do you carefully provide the things 
necessary for the coronation : this very day shall I install 
that foremost of men, the descendant of Raghu. And by 
my order do you summon the Purodhasas, O K&kutstha, 
and the citizens and the Ritwijas, and the councillors." 
Having received the royal behest, the mighty car-warriors 
did accordingly. And the Kshatriyas and the Brahmana* 
entered the royal mansion with the priest as well as the 
requisite things for the installation. And then commenced 
the auspicious sprinkling of the high-souled Satrughna, 
gladdening (the hearts of all in) the palace of R&ghava. And 
on being installed K&kutstha resembled the Sun ; and he 
like Skanda formerly installed by the celestials led by Indra. 
And when Satrughna had been installed by R&ma of untiring 

1. e. of being installed as a king during the life of my elder brother. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

*766 RAM AY AN A. 

deeds, the citizens as well as the BrShmanas of vast Vedic 
attainments experienced excess of joy. And Kau^alyi 
and Sumitri and Kaikeyl and the other wives of the king 
set up festal salutation in the palace. And on Satrughna 
having been installed the high-souled sages dwelling 
on the banks of the JamunS, thought that Lavana had been 
slain. Then placing the installed Satrughna on his lap, 
R&ghava, extolling his prowess, addressed him sweet words: 
" O captor of hosti le capitals, this divine arrow never missing 
is thine. With this, O son of Raghu, thou, O splacid one, 
wilt slay Lavana. O K&kutstha, this shaft was forged when 
invisible by celestials and Asuras the divine self-sprung 
and invincible (deity) reposed on the mighty main, and 
when creation was oppressed by Madhu and Kaitabha as 
well as other Rakshasas. He, overwhelmed with rage desir- 
ous of creating the three worlds, created this best of arrows 
invincible to all beings, for the destruction of the wicked 
ones ; and destroyed them in battle by means of this very 
arrow. And having with this foremost of shafts finished 
Madhu and Kaitabha, they set about creating the worlds. 
When, O Satrughna, formerly I sought to slay Ravana, I 
did not discharge this arrow, thinking that if discharged, it 
would inflict great havoc on creatures. Keeping in his abode 
that great and redoubted which had been bestowed on Madhu 
by the high-souled Tryamvaka, for the destruction of foes,— 
and worshipping the same ever, Lavana goeth about and 
secureth excellet fare (for himself) when one challenged 
him, desirous of reducing him (his antagonist) to ashes. 
Therefore, O foremost of men, thou shouldst, before entering 
the city, stand at the gate obstructing his course. O thou 
having long arms, thou shouldst invite him for battle when 
he shall be weaponless and in that way wouldst be able 
to destroy him. And by no other means he is to be slain. 
If thou canst encompass this, he shall forsooth be slain. O 
my son, I have thus to d thet the way in which the dart 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


should be thwarted. It is impossible to surpass the prowess 
of the graceful Nilkantha. 



_AVING thus addressed Satrughna, R&ma again and 
again praised him and said : — a O foremost of men, let four 
thousand horses, two thousand chariots, one hundred excellent 
elephants, shops with various articles and songsters follow 
thee. O foremost of men, O Satrughna, do thou proceed 
with Nijuta gold and silver coins and necessary riches and 
conveyances. Do thou so act, O hero, that soldiers might 
be well-fed and delighted and be not annoyed with thee. 
Do thou please them with sweet words, for the servants, 
when they face enemies, have not with them friends or wives 
— and so they are pleased, O R3ghava when they receive 
sufficient food and presents. O Satrughna, having sent 
before a huge and well contented army do thou proceed 
afterwards to Madhuvana. Thou shouldst proceed so fear- 
lessly that Madhu's son Lavana might not know that thou 
wert going for encounter. O foremost of men, he shall not 
be slain by any other expedient than that I have acquainted 
thyself with. If he can perceive before, whoever that enemy 
might be, Lavana shall forsooth destroy him. When ra ; ns 
shall set in after the expiration of the present summer thou 
shouldst slay him for that is the proper time for destroying 
that vicious-minded one. For he shall then fearlessly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i;68 RAM AY AN A. 

move about leaving off his dart understanding that no on<* 
would come to fight with him during rains. Let the soldiers 
only now proceed with ascetics before them ; the summer 
hath not as yet fully expired and this is the time, when they 
shall, without any trouble, be able to cross the Ganges. 
Afterwards having encamped thy army on the other side of 
the Ganges thou shouldst alone proceed speedily with thy 
bow." Hearing those words of Rama and summoning all 
his highly powerful and leading warriors Satrughna said 
"Do ye all proceed and halt at those places which are well- 
known to you. Do not oppress any body.'' Having thus 
ordered the powerful warriors the highly powerful Satrughna 
bowed unto Kaucalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi. Thereupon 
having circumambulated with folded hands Rama, Laksh- 
mana and Bharata he reverentially saluted the feet of the 
priests. And then with Rama's permission and having gone 
round him the highly powerful Satrughna issued out. Having 
thus depatched before a huge army consisting of selected 
elephants and horses, Satrughna, the enhancer of the glory 
of Raghu's race, took farewell from Rima. And all showed 
him proper respect. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

VTTaRaKaNDAM. 1769 



XXAVING thus despatched his army and waited at 
AyodhyS. for a month Satrughna, the slayer of enemies, 
proceeded alone. Having spent two nights on his way he 
arrived at the holy and picturesque hermitage of the great 
ascetic Valmiki. And having bowed unto that high-souled 
Muni he, with folded palms, said : — r< illustrious Sir, I wish 
to wait here this day ; I have come here for some business 
of our master RSma. To-morrow morning I shall proceed 
to the dreadful West." Hearing the words of the hi^h- 
souled Satrughna, V&lmiki, the foremost of ascetics, replied 
saying : — "O thou of great renown, do thou wait here 
without any hesitation. O gentle one, this hermitage belongs 
to the descendants of the Raghu race. Do thou fearlessly 
take thy seat and water to wash thy feet." Thereupon taking 
water to wash his feet and feeding upon fruits and roots Satru- 
ghna attained to great delight. And afterwards he asked the 
great ascetic Valmiki saying : — "O great ascetic, to whom 
belong the articles of sacrifice in the east near this hermit- 
age ?" Whereto Valmiki replied "Satrughna, hear I shall 
tell thee, whose sacrificial ground was this in the days of 
yore. There was a king by the name of Saud&sa— one of 
thy ancestors. His son Virjashaha was a highly powerful and 
pious king. The heroic Saud&sa was fond of hunting from 
his boyhood. Once on a time while a-hunting, he espied 
two Rikshasas in the forest. He had heard about them 
many times before : they were in the shape of tigers and of 
a dreadful figure and were not satiated with devouring 
many thousand deer. King Saud&sa saw those two 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i77o RAM AY AN A. 

Rakshasas and found the forest divested of all creatures. 
And enraged in consequence thereof he slew one of them. 
Having slain him and been at ease, Saudasa, the foremost 
of men, began to eye that Rakshasa. His mate, greatly 
aggrieved, said to him : — "0 vicious one, thou hast, without 
any fault, slain my companion — I shall therefore mete out 
becoming punishment unto thee." Having said this the 
Rakshasa vanished therefrom. Thereupon in time the prince 
Virjashaha became king. Saudasa engaged in celebrating 
a mighty horse-sacrifice in the vicinity of this hermitage. 
Vasishtha officiated as a priest at that sacrifice. It continued 
for many Ayuta years. For immense riches the sacrifice 
appeared like one performed by the celestials. Thereupon 
when the sacrifice w T as about to be finished the aforesaid 
Rakshasa, remembering his former enmity, assumed the shape 
of Vasishtha and said to the king Saudasa :— "O king, to-day 
the sacrifice shall end ; do therefore, without any delay, 
feed me with meat." Hearing the words of the Rakshasa in 
the guise of a Brahman, the king ordered his expert cook?, 
saying : — "Do ye soon prepare such dishes of meat as may 
satisfy my preceptor Vasishtha." Having been ordered by 
the king the cooks reverentially went away and the Rakshasa 
assuming their shape brought before the king dishes. The 
king and queen offered those dishes unto the ascetic 
Vasishtha, who, after being treated to them, perceived that 
they were of human flesh and, terribly enraged, said : — "O 
king, let this be thy food which thou hast offered me ; this 
shall not prove otherwise." Being enraged on hearing it 
the king Saudasa took water in his palms and was about 
to imprecate Vasishtha, when his queen, preventing him 
said : — "O king, the illustrious great ascetic Vasishtha is 
our preceptor and priest and so thou shouldst not imprecate 
him." Hearing those words of his queen, the king Saudasa, 
threw off that powerful water on his own feet which at once 
became dark. From that time the illustrious king Saudasa 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


became also known by the name of Kalasmp&da. There- 

spon the king with his spouse again and again bowed unto 

Vasishtha's feet and informed him of what the Rlksbasa 

had done under the guise of a Brihmana. Hearing the 

words of the king and being apprised that this vile act had 

been done by the Rikshasa, Vasishtha said, "O V' n & cvcn 

what I have said angrily shall not prove futile. However 

I confer upon thee this boon that after twelve years thou 

shall be freed from this curse, and by my favour thou shalt 

cherish no recollection of thy condition extending ever those 

twelve years." Having thus suffered the consequences of 

the curse, Saudlsa, the slayer of enemies, again obtained his 

kingdom and governed his subjects. O descendant of 

Rlghu, the sacrificial ground of which thou hast asked me, 

belongs to the king Saud&sa.*' Having thus heard the 

dreadful story of the king Saudisa and saluted the ascetic 

VUmiki, Satrughna entered a thatched cottage. 


— 00- 

yjs the same night Satrughna housed himself in a thatch- 
ed cottage Sita gave birth to twin sons. In the midnight 
the Muni boys came to V&lmiki and communicated unto him 
this auspicious intelligence, saying " O illustrious Sir, the 
beloved spouse of Rama hath given birth to two sons ; do 
thou so protect them that evil spirits might "not injure them.' 1 
Hearing those words the highly effulgent Yalmiki went there 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

177* RAM AY ANA. 

and attained to great delight on beholding those two highly 
effulgent sons, resembling the newly risen sun and the celes- 
tials. Thereupon he made arrangements against the oppres- 
sion of ghosts and goblins. Thereupon taking Kusa ( the 
upper part of the grass) and Lava (the lower part) the great 
ascetic V&lmiki made those arrangements. And giving 
Kusa sanctified by Mantras unto the hands of elderly women 
he said, "do ye rub the person of the elder boy with these" ; 
and giving them Lava he said "do ye rub the person of the 
younger brother with this. And according to this 1 shall 
name the first Son Kusa and the second Lava ; and by those 
names they shall be celebrated on earth." Thereupon reveren- 
tially taking from the hands of Valmiki and Kusa Lava, the 
means of protection, the elderly ladies engaged in guarding 
them. Hearing that Sita without any trouble had given birth 
to two sons and elderly female ascetics had been engaged in 
protecting them and hearing the chanting of Rama's glories in 
the midnight, Satrughna thought within himself. " Blessed it 
is that Sita hath given birth to two sons." And with this joy 
the live long night of Srabana passed away in no time. 
Having performed the morning rites after the expiration of 
the night and taken farewell from the ascetic Valmiki, 
Lakshmana proceeded towards the west. And having spent 
seven nights he at last arrived at the hermitage of the pious 
Rishis living on the banks of the Yamuna. Taking 
shelter there he engaged in pleasant conversation with 
Chabanya and other ascetics. Having remained there for 
the night and talked with those ascetics the high-souled, 
heroic Raghu prince Satrughna was greatly delighted. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X HEREUPON when the night set in Satrughna accosted 
VrigiTs son Ch&banya saying, "O Brahman, how powerful is 
Lavana ? And what is the strength of his dart ? What 
persons before had been destroyed by this dart in conflict ?" 
Hearing the words of the high-souled descendant of Raghu, 
— Satrughna,the highly effulgent Ch&banya replied saying . — 
" O descendant of Raghu, Lavana hath accomplished many 
works by this dart ; amongst them, hear, what Mandh&ta, 
born in the race of Ikshawku, did. The early king of Ayodhyi 
was known over the three woi Ids under the name of Mftn- 
dhita. He was the son of Yavanishwa, highly powerful and 
strong. Having brought the whole world under his subjec- 
tion the king Mandh&ta engaged in the conquest of the 
celestial region. He having been engaged in making prepa- 
rations to conquer the world of gods — the celestial chief 
India with other immortals was greatly terrified. With this 
promise, the king M&ndh&ta went up into the celestial region 
that he would occupy the half of Indra's throne and kingdom 
and the celestials would adore him. Being apprised of this 
vicious intention of his, Indra, the slayer of P&ka, consoled 
him in sweet words, saying : — " O foremost of men, even 
in the land of men, thou hast not been able to become the 
real king. Without perfectly subjugating the earth how 
dost thou wish to lord over the celestial kingdom ? If the 
whole world is under thy subjection, O hero, be thou, with 
the whole host of thy servants and soldiers, installed on the 
celestial throne." Indra having said this, the high-souled 
M&ndhata replied; — " O Sakra, who on this earth, hath dis- 
obeyed my commands ?" Whereto Indra replied "O sinless 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


one, the night-ranger, Lavana, Madhu's son, living in Madh- 
uvana, is not under thy control." Hearing those dreadful and 
npleasant words from Indra, the king lowered his head in 
shame and became silent. Thereupon ,having welcomed 
Indra in that way, he, left there and returned earth. O slayer 
of enemies, with an angry heart, army and conveyance he 
went to subjugate Madhu's son Lavana and sent an emissary 
inviting him to battle. The ambassador, having gone there, 
addressed many unpleasant words unto Lavana and the night- 
ranger devoured him. On the other hand rinding the delay of 
his return tke king Mandhata, enraged, began to assail the 
Rakshasa Lavana with arrows from all sides. Laughing wild 
Lavana took up the dart in his hand and discharged it to 
destroy the king with his followers. Thereupon growing 
powerful the dart reduced the king with his servants and army 
into ashes and returned to Lavana. In this wise the high- 
souled king Mandhata, with his huge army, was slain. O 
gentle hero, incomparable and great is the strength of the 
dart. Forsooth thou shalt slay Lavana next morning. Certain 
is thy victory if Lavana cannot take up his dart. People 
shall be at ease if thou canst bring about the destruction of 
Lavana. O foremost of men, I shall then deseribe unto 
thee the imcomparable and dreadful prowess of the vicious- 
souled Lavana and his dart. O king, with great exertions 
did Lavana slay Mandhata and not easily. O high-minded 
one, next morning thou shalt surely destroy Lavana. He 
shall issue out for flesh without taking his dart. And at that 
time, O lord of men, thou shalt, for sooth, be crowned with 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


SECTION lxxxi. 

X HEY being thus engaged in conversation regarding his 
achieving victory without any danger Satrughna in no time 
passed the night. The clear morning having arrived, the 
heroic Lavana issued out of his city to collect food. In the 
meantime having crossed the river Yamun&, the heroic 
Satrughna, with bow in his hands, stood at the gate of 
Madhu's city. Thereupon returning in the noon with many 
thousand animals, the night-ranger Lavana, of dreadful 
actions, espied Satrughna standing at the gate with a weapon 
in his hand. Thereupon he said : — "What shalt thou do with 
this weapon ? O vile wight, enraged I have devoured many 
thousand persons holding weapons like thee. I now perceive 
thou hast also been possessed by K&la. O vile man, I am 
fully fed. How shalt thou, of thy own accord, enter into my 
mouth ?" Lavana having said this again and again laughing 
the great hero Satrughna shed tears in anger. The high- 
minded Satrughna being beside himself with rage, from all 
his person issued burning lustre. Greatly enraged he said 
to the night-ranger "O thou of a vicious intellect, I wish to 
enter into a dual encounter with thee. I am the son of the 
great king Da^aratha, brother of the intelligent R&maand my 
name is Satrughna. 1 slay all my enemies and have come here 
to destroy thee. I wish now to fight with thee — do thou enter 
into a dual conflict. Thou art the enemy of all animals. 
Thou shalt not be able to survive at my hands " He having 
said this, the R&kshasa, laughing aloud, replied unto that 
foremost of men : — "Thy understanding is bewildered. 
By the influence of destiny thou bast come under my control. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1776 RAM AY AN A, 

The Rakshasa Ravana was the brother of my aunts, o tbou 
of vicious understanding, O vile wight, it is for his wife 
that RSma did slay him. It is out of hatred that I have* 
tolerated the destruction of Ravanas family and havt- 
pardoned you all. You are all vile men ; I have slain and 
defeated all of your family that have passed away and shall 
destroy all that are living and shall come into existence. 
O thou of vicious intellect, if thou wishest I shall fight with 
thee. Do thou wait here so long I do not bring my 
weapon. Do thou remain here as long as I with that 
shall not kill thee." Whereto Satrughna immediately 
replied "Where shalt thou go while I am alive ? The 
practical men should never let off the enemies who come 
out of their own accord. He, who inviteth an enemy into 
battle under the influence of perverted understanding, is 
slain like a coward. Do thou behold this world of creature* 
to thy hearts' content for I shall by various sharp weapons 
despatch thee to Yama's abode who is the enemy of the three 
worlds and Raghava." 

8ECTION lxxxii. 

W EARING the words of the high souled Satrughna 
Lavana was greatly enraged and again and again asked him 
to wait. And clashing his hands and grinding his teeth be 
invited that foremost of Raghus, Satrughna, to fight. And 
Satrughna, the slayer of celestial's enemies, said to the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


dreadful Lavana, giving vent to those words : — "Satrughna 
was not born when thou didst defeat other kings ; do thou 
therefore proceed to Death's abode being assailed by shafts. 
O thou of a vicious soul, as did the celestials behold RaVana 
slain so shall the Rishis and learned Brahmans behold thee, 
destroyed by me. O Rakshasa, forsooth shall good crown 
cities and villages when thou shalt fall down burnt by my 
arrows. As the rays of the sun enter into lotus so shall 
arrows, hard as lightning, discharged by my hands, shall 
enter into thy heart." Being beside himself with ire on 
hearing those words of Satrughna, Lavana threw a huge tree 
against his breast And Satrughna too sundered it into a 
hundred pieces. Beholding his own action baffled the 
Rlkthasa again took up many trees and hurled them at 
Satrughna, who, with three or four hundred bent arrows, cut 
them all, one by one, into pieces. Thereupon when the 
powerful Satrughna assailed him with arrows the Rakshasa 
was not the least pained. Rather laughing aloud the valiant 
Rakshasa uprooted a tree and struck him with that on the 
head. With that stroke he was wounded and slain. And 
that hero falling there arose a terrible uproar amongst the 
Rishis, celestials, Gandharbas and Apsaras. Thereupon 
considering Satrughna slain the night-ranger did not enter 
his house albeit he got the opportunity ; and moreover behold- 
ing him fallen and destroyed he did not take up his dart. 
He then began to carry his collected food. Regaining his 
sense within a moment, Satrughna, with a weapon in his hand, 
stood at the city gate and the Rishis began to praise him. 
Thereupon, he having taken up an excellent arrow of unfail- 
ing aim the ten quarters were filled with its native brilliance. 
Its face was like lightning and its velocity the same and it 
looked like Meru and Mandara ; its joints were all bent. 
None could defeat it in battle. It was pasted with red 
sandal resembling blood and its feathers were beautiful. 
Beholding that dart like unto the fire of dissolution, and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1780 RA MAYAN A. 

dreadful like unto the lords of DSnavas, mountains and Asuras, 
the creatures were greatly terrified. What more, being 
disturbed, the celestials, Asuras, Gandharbas, saints and 
Apsaras and all other creatures of the world approached the 
Great Patriarch, the conferrer of boons and said : — "The 
fear of the celestials and the destruction of the creatures 
hath arrived/' Hearing those words the Patriarch BrahmS 
replied "Although it is a source of great fear still it is not 
dreadful unto the celestials." Thereupon with sweet accents 
he said : — "Hear, O ye celestials, Satrughna hath taken up 
this arrow for the destruction of Lavana. By the energy 
thereof we have all been overwhelmed. This effulgent, ever- 
existing arrow was made by the Primeval, Deity, Vishnu — 
the lord of creatures. My children, the burning arrow, of 
which you are afraid, was made by the high-minded Vishnu 
for slaying the demons Madhu and Kaitabha. And Vishnu 
alone is cognizant of its energy. Th»s Satrughna is the first 
portion of Vishnu's person ; do ye all go hence and behold the 
destruction of the foremost Rakshasa, Lavana, by the high- 
souled, heroic Satrughna, the younger brother of R£ma: f 
Hearing the words of the Patriarch BrahmS, the celestials 
arrived at -the battle-field of Satrughna and Lavana and saw 
that the arrow, held by Satrughna* s hands, was burning like 
the fire of dissolution. Beholding the welkin covered by the 
celestials, Satrughna, the descendant ef Raghu, emitting 
leonine roars, again and again looked towards Lavana. And 
being again excited by the high-seuled Satrughna and 
enraged Lavana arrived for encounter. Thereupon expanding 
his bow up to ears, Satrughna, the most accomplished 
archer, discharged his arrow against the spacious breast of 
of Lavana. And piercing his heart that arrow entered 
speedily into RasStala And having entered Ras&tala that 
arrow, hpnored by the celestials, again came to the descendant 
of Raghu. And being pierced by that shaft the night - 
ranger Lavana fell down on earth like a mountain clapped 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


by a thunder-bolt. The R&kshasa being slain that celestial, 
huge arrow came into the possession of Rudra before the 
gods. Having removed the fear of the three worlds with 
one shaft, that heroic Raghu, Satrughna — younger brother 
of Lakshmana, holding excellent bow and arrow, appeared 
like the Sun of thousand rays removing darkness. There- 
upon chanting the glories of Satrughna, the celestials, Rishis, 
Pannagas, Apsaras, said "O son of Da^aratha, it is really 
fortunate, that thou, renouncing fear, hast acquired victory 
and that the R&kshasa Lavana hath been vanquished like a 


I jAVANA being slain the celestials headed by Agni and 
Indra said in sweet accents to Satrughna the represser of 
enemies : — "O child, fortunate it is that thou hast been 
crowned with success after slaying the R&kshasa Lavana. 
Do thou, therefore, O foremost of men, O thou of firm vows, 
accept boons. O thou having long arms, all those who can 
confer boons have arrived here ; they all wish for thy 
victory ; seeing us doth not go without fruits." Hearing the 
words of the celestials the large-armed and self-controlled 
Satrughna placed his hands on his head and said . — "Let 
this picturesque and charming city of Madhu, built by the 
celestials, be my capital ; this is the only excellent boon I 
can beg." The celestials, with a delighted heart, said to the 
descendant of Raghu. — 'Thy desire shall be fulfilled and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1782 RAM AY AN A. 

forsooth shall thy city be turned into a picturesque capital under 
the name of Surashena." The high-souled celestials having 
ascended the welkin saying this, the highly effulgent 
Satrughna brought the soldiers there, that were encamped 
on the banks of the Ganges. When the soldiers arrived there 
on hearing the commands of Satrughna he engaged in 
making encampments in the month of Sraban. In this wise 
the fearlessness of the celestial host, taking the shape of a 
country, that beautiful and picturesque city was reared in 
the course of twelve years. All the fields there were filled 
with crops and Indra began to pour showers in due season. 
And being protected by the strength of Satiughna's arms 
all men there became valiant and were freed from deseases. 
That city on the banks of Yamuna appeared beautiful like 
the half moon and was filled with yards, shops, streets 
beautiful houses, men of four orders and various articles of 
trade. Satrughna now engaged in beautifying the spacious, 
white houses that were made by Lavana before, with various 
ornamental works. Beholding the city interspersed with various 
excellent gardens, pleasure grounds and prosperously filled 
with celestials and men and diverse articles of trade and mer- 
chants hailing from various countries, Satrughna, the younger 
brother of Bharata, attained to the satisfaction of desire and 
excess of delight. Having thus reared the beautiful city 
he resolved within himself "The twelfth year has come. I 
shall now behold the feet of Rama." Thereupon having set 
up the city resembling the region of the celestials and filled 
with various men, the king Satrughna, the enhancer of 
Raghu's race, determined on beholding Rama's feet. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X HEREUPON on the completion of the twelfth year, 
Satrughna, with few servants, soldiers and followers, desired 
to proceed to AyodhyS. protected by Rama. Having prevent- 
ed his minister and leading generals he proceeded with one 
hundred chariots and cavalry. And having counted seven 
baiting stations on his way, the highly illustrious descendant of 
Raghu — Satrughna, arrived at the hermitage of Vilmiki. Ani 
having bowed unto the feet of the leading Muni, that foremost 
of men took from his hands water to wash feet and Arghya 
and accepted his hospitality. The great ascetic V&lmiki 
addressed to the high-souled Satrughna many sweet words. 
Having referred at first to Lavana' s destruction, he said :— 
"Having slain Lavana thou hast performed a very hard work. 
O gentle one, O foremost of men, Lavana had slain in conflict 
many- hundred highly powerful kings with their army and 
conveyances. And thou hast easily slain that vicious-souled 
RJLkshasa, Lavana. By thy prowess the whole world hath 
been divested of fear. With great difficulty Rima had slain 
Rlvana — but without any trouble whatsoever thou hast accom- 
plished this mighty work. Lavana being slain, the celestials 
have been greatly delighted — what more the well-being of 
the whole universe and all creatures has been brought about. 

Rlghava, O foremost of men, being present in the assemblage 
of Visava — I duly witnessed your combat. O Satrughna, 

1 too have been greatly delighted — I therefore smell thy crown 
for this is the best expression of love." Saying this the high- 
minded V&lmiki smelted his crown and made arrangements for 
his reception as well as that of his followers. After meals, 
Satrughna, the foremost of men, listened to themes 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1784 RAM AY ANA. 

relating to Rama and set in musical notes. Those themes 
were composed describing the early actions of Rlma. 
They were composed in Sanskrit, set to the tune of a 
musical instrument, adorned with all the marks of vocal music 
and arranged in accompaniment with notes. Satrughna, the 
foremost of men, heard them from the beginning to the end, 
pregnant with truth and composed of those words. And 
on hearing it he was beside himself with joy and his eyes 
were full of tears. And remaining stunned for some time 
and regaining his sense afterwards he began to breathe hard 
out of excess of surprise. He heard, in that song, of past 
events as things passing on. And hearing it, his followers, 
with their heads down and sorrowfully said : — " Wonder" ; and 
saying this they began to converse with one another : — 
"Alas ! Where are we ? Is this a dream ? We have been 
hearing at this hermitage what we had not seen before. What 
wonder, that in a dream we hear such an excellent song." 
Being in this wise greatly surprised they said to Satrughna : — 
" O foremost of men, do thou ask particularly, about this, 
V&lmiki, the foremost of ascetics." They being all thus 
struck with curiosity, Satrughna said : — "It is not proper for 
us,0 Ye soldiers, to question him in this way. There are many 
such wonders in the hermitage of this ascetic. It is not 
therefore becoming to ask him about this out of curiosity." 
Having thus addressed the soldiers and bowed unto the 
ascetic, Satrughna, the desendant of Raghu, entered his own 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



X HEREUPON going to bed, Satrughna began to meditate 
apoo. that excellent theme relating to Rama and treating of 
diverse subjects and did not enter into sleep. In sooth the 
high-minded Satrughna spent the night in no time listening to 
that charming song set in musical notes. The night being 
orcr, he first went through the morning rites and then with 
folded hands addressed the foremost of ascetics, Valmiki, 
saying : — "O illustrious Sir, I am anxious to see Rama, the 
enhancer of the delight of the Raghu race. And my desire 
is that thou mayst with other illustrious Rishis, grant me 
permission on this." Satrughna, the slayer of enemies, 
having said this, the great ascetic Valmiki embraced and 
bade him farewell. He was greatly anxious to behold Rama 
and saluting the foremost of Munis he speedily preceeded to 
Ayodhya. Thereupon having entered the highly picturesque city 
Ayodhya, the graceful descendant of Ikshwakus, Satrughna, 
reached where the long-armed and the highly effulgent Rama 
was waiting. He espied there Rama in the midst of the 
councillors like Indra amongst the immortals burning in his 
own effulgence. And having bowed with folded hands unto 
R2ma, having truth for his prowess, Satrughna said : — m O 
great king, I have carried out all thine behests ; I have slain 
the vicious Lavana and filled his city with subjects. O 
descendant of Raghu, twelve years have passed away without 
thee — t do not wish to live any longer separated from thee. 
Do thou therefore, O Kakuthstha of unmitigated prowess, 
have compassion on mc. Without thee, I cannot live for ever 
in a foreign province like a motherless child." He having 
said this, Rama embraced him and said : — "Be not sorry, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1786 RAM AY AN A. 

O hero. This is not a becoming action for Kshatryas. The 
kings, O RSghava, are never tired of .living in a foreign 
land. According to the morality of the Kshatryas, their 
greatest duty consists in governing the subjects. O heroic 
and foremost of men, do thou, at intervals, come to Ayodhyi 
to see me and return to thy own city. Forsooth thou axt 
dearer than my life. But it is an incumbent duty to govern 
the kingdom. Do thou therefore, O K&kutstha, live with me 
for seven nights, and afterwards return to thy city with 
thy servants, army and conveyances." Hearing those moral 
and charming words of Rama, Satrughna poorly replied, 
saying : — "Thy command shall be carried out." Thereupon 
Satrughna, well-skilled in the use of bows, remained with 
R&ma for seven nights and then addressed himself for 
departure. Thereupon having invited Bharata and Laksh- 
mana, the high-souled Rama, having truth for his prowess, 
speedily went for his city in a huge chariot. The high-souled 
Lakshmana and Bharata followed him on foot for some 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


SECTION lxxxvI, 

XjLaviNG bade adieu unto Satrughna, Rama, the descen- 
dant of Raghu, was greatly delighted by governing his 
subjects piously in the company of Bharata and Lakshmana. 
Some days having passed in this wise — a villager, an old 
Brahman, arrived at the palace gate with a dead body. That 
Brahman, stricken with affection, again and again bewailed 
in various piteous accents, exclaiming "What henious crime 
had I committed in my pristine birth that I have been 
constrained to witness the death of my son. My son, thou 
hast not as yet completed fourteen years. To my misery thou 
hast met with untimely death. Forsooth, for thy grief, O 
my son, myself and thy mother shall soon be snatched away 
by death. I do not remember to have ever uttered a false- 
hood, or injured an animal or perpetrated any other crime. 
Therefore for some other sinful action, this boy, without 
performing the son's duties towards his parents, has gone 
to the abode of death. Save under the regeme of R&ma, 
I have never seen or heard of the dreadful death of such a 
boy who hath not attained the age. Forsooth, Rama hath 
perpetrated a mighty iniquity for which boys, during his 
administration, have been meeting with untimely death. In 
other governments boys have no fear of such an untimely 
death. Therefore, O king confer life upon this dead child. 
Or else with my spouse I shall renounce my life at this gate 
like one having no lord. O Rama, soiled by the sin conse- 
quent upon the destruction of a Brahmana, do thou live long 
happily with brothers. O thou of great prowess, up to this 
time we have lived happily in thy kingdom. And now, O 
Rima, under thy subjection we are being troubled with the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1788 RAM AY AN A. 

sorrow of our son's death. We have been brought under 
the influence of Kala ; so in thy kingdom there is not the 
least happiness for us. Having attained Rama as its lord, 
the kingdom, of the high-souled Ikshw&kus, hath attained to 
the condition of one having no master, where during Rama's 
regeme the death of a boy hath been brought about. For 
being impiously governed by a king, for his sin, the subjects 
meet with calamities. And a king following evil tracks and not 
governing the subjects righteously people meet with untimely 
death. Therefore, when a king doth not suppress the crimes 
committed by people either in cities or provinces the fear, 
of untimely death, comes in. Evident it is therefore that 
undoubtedly the sin of the king hath appeared in cities and 
provinces. And for that reason this boy hath met with 
death." Being overwhelmed with sorrow that old Brahman 
again and again remonstrated with the king in these piteous 
words and afterwards covered the death body (of his son). 

S E CTION lxxx v 1 1 . 

JlLEARING those sorrowful words of the Brahman, Rama 
was greatly sorry and sent for Vasishtha, Blmadeva, his 
brothers, citizens and councillors. Thereupon having entered 
the apartment in the company of Vasishtha, eight Brahmans 
blessed the king Rama, resembling a celestial, saying 'may 
victory crown thee.' Markandeya, Maudgalya, Bamadeva, 
tCashyapa, K&tySyana, Javali, Gautama, and Narada — these 
eight leading Brahmanas having taken their seats, R&ma, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


with folded hands, saluted them. And he showed due 
civilities towards bis minister, citizens, Rishis and all others. 
Thereupon all the highly effulgent Rishis being accomodated 
with seats Rama narrated duly before them the account of 
the Brahmana and said. "This Brahman is waiting at the 
Palace-gate." Hearing those words of the poorly king, 
Klrada, in the presence of all other Rishis, replied : — "Hear, 
king, why this boy hath met with untimely death. And 
hearing this, O descendant of Raghu, do thou settle what 
thou thinkest proper. king, in the golden age, only the 
Brabmans used to engage in asceticism. At that age,save the 
Brahmanas no other caste used to lead the life of an 
anchoret. And for this, the Brahmans were the highest caste, 
effulgent in asceticism, shorn of ignorance, above death and 
conversant with three ages. Thereupon at the end of the 
golden age, Brahmana's understanding became loose and 
the TretS Yuga set in. At this age Kshatryas, gifted with 
the power acquired by pristine asceticism, were born. And 
those men, intent upon austere penances, that were born in 
the Treti age, were more powerful and greater devotees than 
those in theformerage. In the golden age the Brahmanas were 
more powerful than the Kshatryas. But in the Tretl age the 
Brahmanas and the Kshatryas were equally powerful. Thus 
in the Tret* age, not beholding prominence of the Brahmanas 
greater than that of the Kshatryas, Manu and other religious 
leaders of the time composed the Sastra describing and 
setting in the four divisions of castes. In this wise the Treti 
age was prolific with virtues of the four Varnas, and many 
pious sacrifices* and was shorn of iniquities. But 
being attacked a little with iniquity, one portion of sin 
appeared on earth. And growing impious people lost their 
strength. And for houses and farms that were the property 
of the former age, people of the Tret* Yuga were possessed 
by envy, the outcome of the quality of darkness. And with the 
treading of impiety on earth during Treti, the soiled bin of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

179° RAM AY AN A. 

untruth appeared. And this iniquity stretching one footstep, 
the lease of people's lives, for sins, became limited. And 
the sin of untruth descending on earth, people, to avoid the 
extinction of life in consequence thereof, became truthful 
and engaged in many pious observances. During the Treta 
age the Brahmanas and Kshatryas engaged in austere 
penances and the Vaisyas and Sudras engaged in serving 
them. And the greatest piety of the Vaisyas and Sudras 
at that time consisted of serving the Brahmanas and 
Kshatryas and specially for the Sudras the highest religion 
was to serve people of alKVarnas. O foremost of kings, at 
the end of the TretS age, Vaisyas and Sudras being fully 
overpowered by the sin of untruth, the Brahmanas and the 
Kshatryas also grew feeble. And the second foot of 
impiety being ushered into the world the Dwapara age 
set in. O foremost of men, during this age two legs of 
piety being cut off, impiety and untruth multiplied. And in 
Yuga named Dwapara the Vaisyas engaged in devout 
penances. In this wise in three ages the three Varnas 
gradually engaged in ascetic performances. The piety of 
asceticism by Yugas gradually became established in three 
Varnas. But, O foremost of men, in these three Yugas the 
Sudras were not entitled to the virtues of devout penances. 
O foremost of men, the degraded caste — the Sudras, during* 
thy regeme, have engaged in aubtere penances. And in the 
Kali Yuga asceticism shall be established in the Sudras. O 
king, even in the Dwapara, devout penances for Sudras were 
considered as impiety, what to speak of the Treta age. O 
king, one Sudra, under the influence of vicious understanding, 
has begun devout penances within thy kingdom. And for 
that reason this boy hath met with death. Calamity sets ii> 
that kingdom where a vrcious-minded person commits ai> 
iniquity and that vicious wrght and the king forsooth speedily 
repair to hell. The king, who piously governeth his subjects,, 
receiveth the sixth portion of theirstudy,asceticism and good 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


actions. While the king is entitled to the sixth portion of 
everything why should he not fully, protect his subjects? 
Therefore,0 chief of men, do thou bring all informations of thy 
kingdom. And be then studious to repress vices wherever 
thou shalt find them. And by that, O foremost of men, the 
piety of the subjects shall be increased, the lease of their 
life shall- be prolonged and this boy shall regain his life/ 9 



.EARING the sweet words of the celestial saint NSrada 
Rlma was greatly delighted and addressing Lakshmana 
said : — "O gentle one, do thou console that foremost of twice- 
born ones and place the dead body of the boy in a jar full of 
oil. Let this body be protected by sweet-scented oil so that it 
might not be soiled by any means. See that it is not 
disfigured, its joints are not loosened and the hairs do not fall 
off." The highly illustrious R&ma, the descendant of 
Ikshw&kus, thus commanded Lakshmana, gifted with 
auspicious marks, and thought of his car and desired it to come 
soon. Understanding his intention the golden car appeared 
before him in no time and saluting him said : — " O thou of 
long arms, thine chariot hath come." Hearing the sweet 
words of Pushpaka the king Rama saluted the great ascetics, 
ascended the car with his burning bow, quiver and dagger 
and left Bharata and Lakshmana in charge of the city. And 
searching that Sudra devotee here and there R&ghava pro- 
ceeded towards the west. And not beholding him there 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1792 RAM AY AN A. 

he went to the North bounded by the Himalyas. And even 
there he did not espy the Sudra ascetic and even the smallest 
iniquity was not seen there. Thereupon returning from that 
quarter the king journeyed the whole of east. And having 
sat on the Pushpaka car he saw that the eastern quarter 
was transparent like a looking glass and there was not the 
best touch of sin. From the east R&ghava proceeded to- 
wards the south and espied a big tank by the side of the 
Saivala mountain. On the banks of that pond one ascetic 
was performing the most austere penances with his legs 
upwards and head downwards. Thereupon approaching 
him, Rama said — " O thou of good vows, blessed art thou ; 
I do ask thee, now, O thou highly effulgent and grown old 
old in asceticism, in what Varna thou art born. I put this 
question out of curiosity. I am the son of king Dacaratha 
and my name is Rama. For what art thou going through 
such hard austerities ? Is it heaven or anything else that 
thou prayest for ? O ascetic, I wish to hear, of the purpose 
for which thou art performing such hard penances. Art thou 
a Brahman, or an irrepresible Kshatrya or the third caste 
Vaisya or a Sudra? Do thou speak the' truth and thou shalt 
be crowned with auspiciousness." Hearing the words of 
Rama, the ascetic, whose face was downwards, gave out his 
degraded birth and communicated unto him for what he 
was performing ascetic observances. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XI EARING the words of R&ma of unwearied actions, the 
ascetic, with his face downwards, said : — " O highly illustrious 
Rlma, I am born in the race of Sudras; and with a view to 
reach the region of the celestials with my body I am going 
through these austere penances. K&kuthstha, I shall 
never utter a falsehood since I am willing to conquer the 
the region of gods. I am a Sudra and my name is Sambuka." 
The Sudra ascetic having said this, R&ma took out of 
scabbard a beautiful sharp sword and chopped off his head 
therewith. And that Sudra being slain, Indra, Agni and 
other celestials praised him again and again and showered 
flowers. And being greatly delighted, the celestials said to 
Rlma 4 having truth for his prowess: — "O thou of a great 
mind, thou hast nicely performed this god-like work. 
O slayer of foes, do thou now crave a boon. O des- 
cendant of Raghu, being slain by thee this Sudra 
hath been able to attain to the abode of the celes- 
tials/' Hearing the words of the deities, Rama, having 
truth for his prowess, said with folded hands to Purandara, 
of a thousand eyes : — "If the celestials are pleased, I beg for 
this boon that the son of the twice-born one may be restored 
to life. Do ye confer upon me this boon ; this is my wished- 
for object. It is for my iniquitous conduct that this only son of 
the Brahman hath met with untimely death. Do ye restore 
him to life. I have promised before that leading twice-born 
one that I would restore his son to life — do ye therefore, 
make not me a liar." Hearing the words of R&tna the 
leading celestials delightedly said : — "Do thou return, O 
Klkutstha. The Brahmin boy shall immediately gain back 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i?94 RAM AY AN A. 

his life and be united with his father, mother and friends. 
O Raghava, with the death of the Sudra the boy has regained 
his life. Be thou at ease ; may good betide thee. 
foremost of men, we, too, return with delighted hearts. 

Raghava, we desire to behold the hermitage of the great 
saint Agastya. Having been initiated, that highly effulgent 
Brahman saint hath lived within waters for twelve years ; 
his vow hath now terminated. O Kakuthstha, we shall now 
go to welcome that Muni. Do thou also follow us to see 
that saint." Saying 'so be it* to the words of the celestials 
that descendant of Raghu ascended his golden car Pushpaka. 
And having ascended spacious cars the celestials proceeded 
to the hermitage of Agastya born of a Kumbha. Rama 
too also followed them. Thereupon beholding the celestials 
present the virtuous-souled Agastya, the jewel of asceticism, 
welcomed them particularly. Having accepted his worship 
and adored in return that great Muni,the immortals, delighted, 
proceeded to their abodes with their followers. The celestials 
having departed Rama descended from Pushpaka and 
saluted that effulgent and foremost of Rishis Agastya. And 
having received due hospitality he sat there. Thereupon 
the highly effulgent and leading ascetic Kumbhajoni said : — 
"O Raghava, I have been greatly delighted with thy coming. 
By my good fortune I have seen thee to-day. O Rama, 

1 love thee because thou art gifted with many qualities. 
king, thou art my worshipful guest. I was thinking of thee. 
The celestials informed me that thou wert coming having 
slain the Sudra ascetic. Thou hast observed piety and hast 
given back life unto the dead child of the Brahman. Do 
thou spend this night with me, O Raghava. Thou art the 
graceful Narayana. In thee the whole universe is establish- 
ed. Thou art the lord of all creatures and the eternal 
Purusha. Thou shalt go to thy city next morning in thy 
Pushpaka car. This ornament, O gentle one, hath been 
made by the architect of the celestials ; its make is very 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


beautiful and it is dazzling by its own lustre. By accepting 
this. O Kakutstha, do thou satify my desire. It is said, that 
one attains to best fruits if he makes present unto his deity, 
of best articles he gets from another. Thou art the only 
worthy person to use this ornament. Thou art alone capable 
of conferring best fruits. Thou dost protect Indra and other 
celestials. Therefore I do duly present thee with this 
ornament. O king, flo thou accept it." Thereupon meditat- 
ing upon the duties of the Kshatryas, the heroic Rama, the 
foremost of the intelligent, said : — "O illustrious Sir, the 
B-ahmanas only can accept presents — how can the Kshatryas 
do ? To take gifts is the function of the Brahmanas — for 
Ivshatryas it is a source of censure. Besides, to receive 
presents from a Brahmana, is highly culpable. Do thou 
therefore tell me, how I may accept this ornament. " 
Hearing the words of Rama, the great saint Agastya replied 
saving : — "O RSma, O son of Dacaratha, at the beginning 
of the golden age, people had no king; but Vasava was the ruler 
of the celestials. Therefore to obtain a king, men approached 
Brahm&, the god of gods and said "O deity thou hast placed 
Indra as ruler over the celestials ; therefore, O lord of 
creatures, do thou also confer upon us a king who shall be 
foremost among men ; by worshipping him we shall be freed 
from all sins. We shall not live without the king — even 
this is our firm resolution.*' Thereupon the Patriarch 
Brahma sent for Indra and other deities and said : — "Do ye 
all give a portion of your respective energies." Thereupon 
the deities gave each a portion of their own energies. There- 
upon BrahmS made a Khshupa or sound and therefrom 
originated a king under the name of Khshupa, And in 
his person Brahm& placed in equal proportions the energies 
of the deities. Thereafter he made Khshupa the foremost 
* king of men. By virtue of the portion of Indra's energy 
the king Khshupa brought the earth under his control ; by 
that of Varuna's energy he fostered his own body ; by Kuvera's 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1796 RAM AY AN A. 

portion he conferred riches upon his subjects ; and by that 
of Yama he governed them. Therefore, O Rama, by virtue 
of Indra's portion, do thou accept this ornament and confer 
upon me the salvation. " Hearing the words of the Muni, Rama 
took from him that brilliant celestial ornament burning like 
the rays of the Sun. And having taken that excellent 
ornament, Dacarathi asked the great saint Kumbhayoni, 
saying : — "Whence hast thou obtained this celestial ornament 
of a wondrous make ? Who hast given thee this ? O 
Brahman, I do accost thee thus out of curiosity. Thou 
art the mine of many wonders." Whereto Agastya replied, 
saying "Hearken, O Rama, how I did obtain this ornament 
in the Treta apfe." 


\J Rama, in Treta age, there was a huge rforest ex- 
tending over hundred Yoyanas divested of animals and men. 
In that forest I used to perform my austere penances. Once 
on a time I began to roam all over the forest being willing 
to see well every nook and corner of it. And I saw that 
it was impossible to ascertain how very pleasant that forest 
vas. In every place there were trees with profuse sweet 
r its and roots. In the middle I espied a pond extending 
;- a Yoyana. There was no moss in that deep, calm, 
- w: -ind sweet water; there were lotuses and lilies and 
-,.*■••'.::--., Karandavas, Chakravakas and many other w r ater 
iowIs were playing in the waters. O lord of creatures, at no 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


distance from that pond I saw an old, holy hermitage but 
there was no creature or animal around it. It was summer 
and I spent that night in that hermitage. Next 
morning leaving my bed I arrived at the banks 
of the pond and saw a plump dead body in the waters. 
None of its limbs was pale and its beauty was not spoiled. 
Beholding it and standing on the banks I began to meditate 
upon it. And thought I "What is this ?' In a moment I 
espied a beautiful car, swift-coursing like the mind and 
drawn by ganders. And I saw in that chariot a celestial 
person. He was being attended by Apasaras adorned with 
celestial ornaments and having lotus-eyes. Some of them 
were singing, some dancing and some playing on Mridanga, 
Vina and other musical instruments and some were fanning 
his lotus-like countenance with valuable, golden chowries, 
dazzling like the rays of the moon. O Rama, the foremost 
of Raghu's race, like unto the moon renouncing the summit 
of the Sumeru mount that celestial wight got down from 
his seat in the car and engaged in devouring the dead body. 
And having taken enough flesh he got down into waters and 
duly performed ablution. And thereafter that heavenly 
being again addressed himself for ascending the car. O 
foremost of men, beholding that heavenly being about to 
get up I accosted him, saying 'Who art thou ? I see, thou hast 
a celestial firm, then why hast thou taken such an abomina- 
ble food ? O thou adored of the immortals, persons like 
thee should not take such meals. O gentle one, I have been 
striken with great curiosity and wish to hear all. Thine 
living upon dead body doth not appear agreeable unto me./ 
O king, plainly and out of curiosity I put to him these 
questions. And hearing them, the celestial being related 
everything unto me. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1793 RAM AY AN A. 



RAMA, hearing my words pregnant with sound 
reasoning, that heavenly being, with folded hands, said : — 
" Hear, O Brahman, from what unavoidable cause hath 
proceeded this happy and again painful incident. There 
flourished in the days of yore a highly illustratious and 
powerful Vidarbha king under the name of Sudeva known 
over three worlds. He was my father. His two queens gave 
birth to two sons. My name is Svveta and the name of my 
youngest brother was Suratha. After the decease of my sire 
the subjects installed me on the throne and I governed them 
piously and carefully for a thousand years. By some reason 
I was informed of the extent of my life. And when I 
perceived that the lease of my life had well-nigh expired 
I entered into the life of Banaprasta. And having placed 
my brother Suratha on the throne I entered into a dense 
forest devoid of men and animals at no' distance from this 
pond to perform devout penances. And I performed aus- 
terities for a long time near this pond. Having performed 
hard penances in this forest, for three thousand years I at 
last attained to the region of Brahma. And albeit I had 
reached the Brahma region I was still being assailed by 
hunger and thurst. And gradually I grew tired therewith. 
Thereupon approaching the patriarch Brahma, the lord of 
three worlds, I said : — " O Brahma, here there is no hunger 
or thirst ; still why have I been brought to their control ? 
Of what iniquity of mine is this fruit? O deity, tell me 
upon what I shall live." Whereto the patriarch replied :• — . 
"O son of Sudeva, do thou live upon sweet savoured meat 
^ every day. O Sweta, thou didst only look to the growth of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


thy person when thou didst perform rigid penances. O thou 
of a great mind, nothing grows, when nothing is sown. 
Thou didst only perform ascetic penances, but thou didst not 
make any gift of charity. It is for that reason, O my son, 
that thou art, even in heaven, being assailed by hunger and 
thirst. Thereupon do thou now live upon thine own dfead body 
fostered by various food. By this thou shalt keep up thy 
being. O Sweta, thou shalt be relieved from this affliction 
when the irrepressible, great Saint Agastya shall reach that 
forest. O gentle one, even unto the immortals he can give 
salvation ; what wonder it is that he shall relieve thee from 
the miseries of hunger and thirst. O foremost of twice- 
born ones, from the time of hearing those words of the great 
Brahma, the god of gods, I have been engaged in this cursed 
work of feeding upon my own . dead body. O Brahman, 
for many long years I have been living upon this corpse 
still I have not done with it. O Saint, I, too, derive satis- 
faction from it ; I now understand that thou art the illustrious 
Agastya born of a Kumbha ; for none else is capable of 
coming here ; do thou therefore save me from this pain, who 
am afflicted with great miseries. O foremost of twice-born 
ones,0 gentle one, do thou take this ornament ; may good betide 
thee. Do thou be propitiated with me. O Brahman, I do 
confer upon thee, gold, riches various clothes, eatables, 
excellent ornaments and diverse other objects of desire and 
enjoyment O foremost of Munis, do thou with compassion 
save me." Hearing those words of the heavenly being, 
exciting pity, I accepted this ornament for saving him. And 
as soon as I took this ornament that human body of the 
royal saint disappeared. And the body being dissolved, the 
royal saint Sweta, greatly delighted, happily went to the 
land of immortals. It is for this reason, O K&kutstha, that 
royal saint, resembling Indra, conferred upon me this 
wondrous, celestial ornament. M 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

iSoo RAM AY AN A. 



| EARING the wondrous words of the great saint Kum- 
bhayoni, Rama, out of great curiousity and importance of the 
subject, again asked him, saying : — "0 Brahman, why was 
that dense forest, in which the king Sweta used to perform 
hard penances, divested of birds and animals? And how 
did he proceed to that forest devoid of men and anin^als 
for undergoing penances? I wish to hear the truth." Hear- 
ing the words of Rama stricken with curiosity, the highly 
effulgent saint Agastya said: — " O Rama, formerly in the 
golden age, Manu was the king. His son was Ikshawku. 
Having installed the irrepressible Ikshawku, Manu said: — 
' Be thou the lord over creatures. 1 Saying "so be it" Ikshawku 
accepted the command. Thereupon greatly delighted Manu 
said to his son : — ' I have been highly pleased with thee. 
For sooth thou shalt become a very liberal prince. Thou 
shalt govern the subjects meting out proper punishment 
unto them, but do not punish them without any fault. H 
the punishment, which a king inflicts upou the guilty, be 
just it becomes the instrumental in taking the giver to 
heaven. Therefore,0 my son having large arms,be particularly 
studious as regards punishment for thereby thou shalt 
acquire great piety/ Having in this wise advised Ikshawku 
Manu delightedly repaired to the region of BrahmSL After 
Manu's departure, the effulgent Ikshawku thought of the 
means for creating progeny. Thereupon performing many 
pious rites Manu's son engendered a hundred sons. O 
descendant of Raghu, the youngest of all those sons became 
stupid and ignorant and did not respect his elder brothers. 
And thinking that he should therefore be punished he 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


named this son * Danda.' Thereupon finding no other 
province worthy of Danda he allotted the region between 
Vindhya and Saivala to him. Danda became king of that 
picturesque valley. And having reared a fine city there he 
named it as Madhumanta and appointed Sukracharja of 
firm vews as his priest. Having thus established his kingdom, 
Danda, with his priest, began to lord over it filled with 
healthy and delighted people like unto the lord of relestials 
in their region. O Rama, like unto Mahendra governing 
his kingdom of heaven under the guidance of Yrihaspati, 
the preceptor of celestials, Danda, the grand-son of Manu, 
governed his own kingdom with the help of UsanSs." 


— 00- 


.AVINC related this story unto R£ma the great saint 
Agastya again said : — O K&kutstha, having subdued his 
passions, the king Danda, reigned undisturbed in this wise 
for many long years. Thereupon during spring, in the 
month of Chaitra the king arrived at the pictu-esque her- 
mitage of the preceptor Sukra. At that time, Sukra's 
daughter, matchless in beauty and grace, was walking in the 
forest. The king saw that jewel of a girl, and being 
stricken with lust and growing restless he approached her 
and said : — " O thou having a beautiful waist, O fair lady, 
whose daughter art thou ? O thou having a moonlikc coun- 
tenance, I have been assailed by the arrows of Cupid and 
hence I do accost thee thus." Hearing the words of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1802 RAM AY ANA. 

vicious-souled Danda, maddened with lust, Sukra's daughter 
humbly said : — ' O king of kings I am the daughter of the 
preceptor Sukra of unwearied actions and my name is Arajas. 
1 am living in this hermitage — O king, do not touch me 
forcibly for I am a maid and hence under the guardianship 
of my father. Besides my father is my preceptor, and thou 
art also his desciple. Being enraged he shall imprecate thee 
with a curse. O foremost of men, if thou dost cherish any 
desire for me, do thou honestly and piously pray for it unto 
my sire. Or else thou shalt suffer dreadful consequences 
in the long run. When worked up with ire, my father can 
reduce even the three worlds to ashes. O thou of a blame- 
less person, if thou dost pray, my father may make me over 
unto thy hands." Arajas having said this, the king Danda, 
maddened with lust, placing folded palms on his head, said : — 
14 Be thou propitiated with me, O thou having a graceful 
person ; do not tarry even for a moment. My heart bursts 
out for thee, O thou having a moon -like countenance. For 
acquiring thee I can even take upon myself my own des- 
truction or dreadful iniquity. Do thou seek me, O fair lady — 
I am beside myself for thee." Having said this the king 
forcibly ravished her. Having perpetrated such a mighty 
iniquity he speedily returned to his own city Madhumanta. 
Arajas cried aloud in forest at no distance from the her- 
mitage and waited for her sire who had been away on vUi- 
ting the celestials. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


scetioN xciv 

JL HEREUPON having heard everything about Arajfts frdrfi 
& desciple, he, surrounded by his pupils, Arrived at his owrt 
Wrmitage and beheld her there podrly, soiled with dust and 
like unto the rooming rays Of tht moon possessed by a 
planet He was stricken with hunger and Was greatly in* 
ceased oft beholding his daughter ih that wretched pl1ght> 
xs if burning the thrfte worlds with rage. Addressing his 
f>apils he said . — " Do y& witness today the dreadful calamity, 
arising Out of my flaming ire, of the vicious Danda treading 
the path of immorality. This vicious wight hath placed his 
Hands in the burning flame so he shall, along with followers, 
meet with destruction. Since that vile being hath perpe- 
trated such a dreadful crime he shall forsooth softer the con- 
sequence thereof. Within seven nights, the wicked and 
Vicious Danda, with his son, soldiers and retirtue, shall meet 
with death. Showering dust Indra shall destroy, 
to the extent of a hundred Yoyana, the territory of 
this vicious king. And all creatures mobile and immobile, 
wherever they might be, shall be destroyed with this down- 
pour of dust. All animals as far as this Dandas > territory 
extends, shall be destroyed within seven nights. 1 ' Having 
said this, with eyes reddened with ire, Usan&s, Vrigu's son* 
said to the inmates of his hermitage :— " Do ye all go and 
wait outside this kingdom." Hearing the words of the 
preceptor Sukra, the inmates left the hermitage and lived 
at a place beyond the limit of Danda's territories. Having 
thus addressed the inmates of the hermitage the great saint, 
said to Araj&s. " O unfortunate girl, with a devoted mind 
do thou .wait at this hermitage. Without any anxiety, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 883 RAM AY AN A. 

O Arajis, do thou wait for the time at the picturesque banks 
of this pond extending over a Yoyana. Within seven nights 
whoever shall approach thee, shall be destroyed with this 
downpour of dust." Hearing the words of the Brahmana 
saint and preceptor Sukra, A raj is sorrowfully said to her 
father 'it shall be done.' Thereupon Sukracharjya went 
away and lived elsewhere. According to the words of the 
saint, the entire kingdom of Danda, with servants, army, 
and conveyances, was destroyed within seven nights. O 
RSma, in the golden age, the province between the moun- 
tains Vindhya snd Saivala comprising Danda' s territories, 
imprecated by the Brahman saint, in consequence of the 
iniquity of the vicious souled, was reduced into a desert. 
From that time it passes by the name of Dandaka forest. 
And it is otherwise called Janasthina because the ascetics 
used to perform austerities there. O Rftghava, I have 
thus related unto thee, all thou didst ask of me. O hero, 
the time for performing evening rites hath come. Behold O 
foremost of men, having performed ablution, the great saints, 
on all sides, with jars full of water, are worshipping the 
sun. Having accepted adoration in the shape of Vedic 
hymns chanted by Brahmans, well-versed in Vedas, the illus- 
trious Aditya is about to be set. Therefore, O R&ma, do 
thou perform the ceremony. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


section xcv. 

XX bARING the words of the great saint, Rlma, to per- 
the evening adoration, went to the pond filled with 
Apsarls ; and having performed the worship he again retured 
to the hermitage of the high-souled Agastya. Thereupon 
the great ascetic offered him as food many substantial 
Kanda, roots, Oshadis and the holy S&li rice. And taking that 
nectar-like cooked rice, Riraa, the foremost of men, was 
greatly delighted and spent the night there. Having got up 
in the morning and performed the necessary ceremonies he 
approached the ascetic to bid farewell, and saluting him 
•aid :— " O great Rishi, I do crave for thy permission to go 
to my own habitation. Do thou permit me. O high-souled 
one, I have been highly favoured and blessed by beholding 
thee. I shall come again some other time to free myself 
from sins." Hearing those wondrous words of R&ma, Agastya 
having asceticism for his wealth, delightedly said :— "O Rima 
these words, set in charming letters, are highly wonderful. 
O descendant of Raghu, thou art the purifier of all creatures. 
O Rlma, one, who beholds thee, even for a moment, 
becomes pure and worthy of repairing to heaven. Even the 
leading deities worship him. Those on earth,who cast dreadful 
looks on thee, are immediately brought under the control 
of Yama and are constrained to go to hell. O foremost of 
Raghus, thou art the purifier of all creatures ; people become 
perfect even if they only chant thy glories. Kftkutstha, 
do thou now go with ease and fearlessly, and govern thy 
kingdom righteously. O Rama thou art the refuge of the 
world." Hearing the words of the great and truthful Rishi 
the wise R&ma, with folded bands, saluted him and other 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1885 RAM AY AN A. 

Rishis,and with serene air ascended the golden car Pushpaka* 
Like unto the immortals welcoming the Chief of the deities, the 
Risbis showered blessings upon R5ma from all sides while 
he was proceeding. And seated on car, he appeared like 
the moon, after the expiry of the rainy season. Thereupon 
being welcomed by the villagers on his way he reached 
Ayodhy& at noon and descended at the middle apartment* 
And having permitted the charming chariot coursing at will* 
to go away he said : — 'Do thou now go; may good betide 
thee. ,, Thereupon he said to the warder* l( Do thou speedily 
go and having communicated my arrival unto Lakshma,ns* 
and Bharata bring them here*"' 


^/V-CCORDING to the command of RSma of unwearied 
actions, the warders went to the princes and communcated 
unto them (the arrival). Beholding Bharata and Lakshmana 
present, R£ma embraced them and said : — "I have, as pro- 
mised, performed the work of the excellent twice-born one, 
I wish now to perform a Rajshuya sacrifice, the source of 
religious glory, the destroyer of all sins, inexhaustible and 
un-ending. Therefore, with you like my own self, I wish 
to engage in the most excellent and eternal Rajshuya sacri- 
fice. O slayer of foes, by celebrating Rajshuya, Mitra 
attained to the dignity of Varuha. And having celebrated 
the same sacrifice, Soma, conversant with piety, established 
eternal fame in the three worlds. Do ye therefore consult with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


me even today as to what is proper. Do ye consider care* 
folly and tell me what is auspicious and productive of well- 
being in the long run." Hearing the words of Righava, 
Bharata, well-skilled in the art of speech, with folded 
hands, said "0 pious Sir in thee are established 
piety, earth and fame. O thou of unmitigated 
prowess, as the deities honor the patriarch so other kings 
bold thee in reverence. O king, all creatures mobile and 
immobile consider thee as their father. O thou of great 
strength,thou art the refuge of all animals and of the universe. 
Therefore of what use is such a sacrifice unto thee ? In 
such a sacrifice all the royal families meet with ruin. All 
those kings, who are proud of manliness, being incensed with 
great ire on the occasion of this sacrifice, shall bring ruin 
upon all. O foremost of men, the whole earth has been 
brought under thy subjection so it is not proper to devastate 
it." Hearing those sweet accents of Bharata, Rama, having 
truth for his prowess, attained to incomparable delight, an<| 
addressed the enhancer of Kaikeyi's delight with kind words A 
saying : — "O thou freed from sins, I have been greatly 
delighted with thee. O foremost of men, for the preservation 
of eartb,thou bast given vent to words, without any hesitation! 
pregnant with manliness and piety. O thou conversant with 
piety, according to thy wise counsels, I refrain from celebrat- 
ing this Rljshuya sacrifice. The wise should never undertake 
all those works which give affliction unto people. O elder 
brother of Lakshmana, it is proper to take wise counsels even 
from a boy." 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

1887 RAM AY ANA. 


jf^FTER the conversation between Rama and Bharata 
had been over, Lakshmana, with reasonable words, said to the 
former . — "O worshipful Sir, amongst sacrifices Aswamedha 
is the best and the remover of all sins ; it is my prayer there- 
fore that thy desire might be turned towards this great and 
highly purifying sacrifice. It is said in this Purinas, that 
Purandara, sullied by the sin consequent upon slaying a 
Brahmana, was again purified by celebrating a horse sacrifice. 
O thou having long arms, formerly, during the war between 
gods and demons there flourished a highly honored Asura 
under the name of Vitra. The breadth of his body was a 
hundred Yoyanas and the height thereof was three hundred 
Yoyanas. Considering all under his subjection he used to 
regard them with affection. He was pious > grateful and used 
to perform nothing without proper deliberation. .. And tread- 
ing pious tracks he used to govern his subjects very carefully. 
During his administration earth produced all wished-for 
objects; roots and fruits were . tasteful and flowers 
were fragrant. Without being cultivated earth used to yield 
crops. In this wise for many long years he governed a 
prosperous and wonderful kingdom. Thereupon he deter- 
mind upon performing a hard penance. He considered 
asceticism as the best of all and regarded all other things 
as mere illusions. Having resolved thus and placed his son 
Madhureswara on the throne Vitra engaged in austerities 
creating terror unto all deities. He being thus engaged in 
asceticism, Indra, greatly terrified, approached Vishnu and 
said : — "O thou having long arms, by virtue of his asceticism 
Vitra is about to conquer all the worlds. He is pious, so I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


cannot subdue him. illustrious Sir, if his ascetic powers 
grow more • we shall be constrained to live under 
his control for ever from the creation. Do thou there* 
fore not neglect any longer this highly generous Asura. 
Thyself being enraged, O lord of deities, Vitra shall not live 
even for a moment. O Vishnu, from the time he succeeded 
in propitiating thee, he hath obtained the sovereignty of the 
three worlds. Do thou, therefore, be propitiated now ; save 
thee none can free this world from thorns and bring it at 
rest. O Vishnu, all the deities are waiting for thee ; do thou 
help them by slaying Vitra. O thou having a large mind, 
thou art always the help of these high-souled deities. It is 
impossible for any one else to accomplish the present work. 
Thou art the refuge of the helpless/' 


H earing the words of Lakshmana, Rftma, the slayer 
of enemies, said : — "O thou of firm vows, do thou at length, 
describe the destruction of Vitra. 11 Hearing the words of 
Rlghava, Lakshmana, the enhancer of Sumitr&'s delight, again 
took up that theme. "Hearing the words of Indra and other 
deities Vishnu replied : — 'From before I am bound with the 
high-souled Vitra by the ties of friendship. For this, even 
for your satisfaction, I shall not (myself) slay him. Again 
I am to afford excellent felicity unto you. I shall myself divide 
you into three classes and then forsooth your king shall be 
able to destroy Vitra. Of those three portions the first shall 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i88g RAM AY AN A< 

be able to slay him." Vishnu, the god of gods, having said 
this, the deittes] replied, saying : — "O slayer of demons* 
Undoubtedly* what thou liast said, shall pr&Ve true ; may 
victory crown thee ; we proceed now to slay Vitra. O highly 
generous deity, do thou now make Vasava powerly by infus- 
ing thy own energy^ Thereupon the highly poweiful im- 
rnortals headed by Indra entered the forest where the great 
Asura Vitra was performing austerities. Arriving there 
they observed that the leading AsUfa was spreading rays 
all over— -the outcome of his own effulgence, as if devouring 
the three worlds and burning down the quarters^ Beholding 
that foremost of Asuras, the deities were greatly terrified 
and began to think of plans by which they would be able 
to slay him and not be defeated. While they were thus 
thinking, Indra, of thousand eyes, taking up a thunderbolt) 
hurled it against Vitra's head. That dreadful burning 
thunderbolt, like unto the fire of dissolution, falling on Vitra' s 
head) the three Worlds were agitated. Thereupon thinking 
that he has perpetrated an iniquity by slaying Vitra engaged 
in asceticism, Indra, out of fear, fled to the other side ot 
Lokaloka>> perpetually enshrowded with darkness. And the: 
sin, consequent upon the destruction of a Brahman, pursuing 
him vehemently> entered into his person. In this wise Indra 
became subject to dreadful afflictions. Beholding the enemy 
slain and Indra fled, the deities headed by fire again and 
again chanted the glories of Vishnu— the lord of three 
worlds, saying :— "O great god, thou art the refuge of the 
three worlds. Thou art the first-born and the father of the 
universe. For protecting all creatures thou hast assumed 
this Vishnu form. Thou hast slain this Vitra but the sin of 
slaying a Brahman has visited Indra. Therefore, O excellent 
Purusha, do thou so arrange that he may be freed from sins.' 1 
Hearing the words of the celestials Vishnu said— "Let youf 
Chief celebrate a sacrifice in my honor— and by that he shall 
be cleansed off the sin. If the slayer of Paka celebrates a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


horse sacrifice, he shall again fearlessly be installed as the 
chief of deities/' Having addressed these nectar-like words 
to the deities and being glorified by them, Vishnu, the god of 
gods, returned to his abode. 


H AVING thus described at length and finished the story 
of Vitra's destruction Lakshmana said : — 'The mighty Vitra, 
the terror of the deities, being slain, and the slayer Indra, 
being assailed by the sin of Brahmanicide, was bewildered 
and at a loss to ascertain hi s duty. Being at his wit's end 
he repaired to the other side of the Lokaloka mountain and 
remained there for some time like a coiled serpent. And 
again in consequence of Indra's separation, the whole world 
was agitated, the forests grew dried and the earth was 
devoid of water. On account of the rivers being dried up and 
want of rain all creatures grew impatient. In this wise, the 
time of the destruction of creatures having arrived, the 
celestials being stricken with anxiety, according to the 
previous command of Vishnu, engaged in celebrating the 
sacrifice With Rishis and Ritwikas they fearfully approach- 
ed Purandara ; and beholding him assailed by the sin of 
Brahmanicide, they with him, at their head, engaged in 
celebrating a horse-sacrifice. After the sacrifice the 
sin issued out of Indra's person and addressing the high- 
souled deities said "Do ye all ascertain, where I shall go 
now." Thereupon highly pleased the deities replied : — "Do 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1891' RAM AY AN A. 

thou divide thyself into four portions/' Hearing the words of 
the high-souled celestials she divided herself into four parts, 
and wishing for a separate habitation said : — "By one portion, 
I shall at my pleasure, live in rivers full of water during 
rains and shall obstruct people from going there. By my 
second portion I shall live perpetually on lands as Ushara ;* 
I tell you the truth. By my third portion I shall for three 
nights every month live in youthful women proud of their 
youth — so that men might not live with them. And by my 
fourth, portion I shall enter into the persons of those who 
shall slay innocent Brahmanas." Hearing those words the 
deities said "What thou hast said shall be carried out Do 
what thou wishest." Thereupon the celestials, delighted, 
adored their Chief divested of sins and crowned with victory. 
And V&sava being installed again on the throne, the whole 
universe was at rest. Thereupon Indra worshipped Vishnu 
in the shape of that wonderful sacrifice. O descendant of 
Raghu, such is the power of a horse-sacrifice." Hearing the 
charming words of Lakshmana, the energetic and high-souled 
king, R&ma, powerful like Indra, was greatly delighted. 

* A spot with saline soil 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H EARING the words of Lakshmana and smiling, the 
highly effulgent descendant of Raghu, Rama, skilled in the 
art of speech, replied : — "Lakshmana, foremost of men, 
thou hast truly related the story of Vitra's destruction and 
the fruits of horse-sacrifice. O gentle one, I have heard, 
that formerly in the province of Valheeka, the graceful king 
Ila, the son of the patriarch Kardama, was highly pious. O 
foremost of men, having brought the entire earth under his 
control, the highly illustrious king Ila used to govern his 
subjects like unto his own sons. O descendant of Raghu, 
being terrified, the generous deities, the rich Daityas, the 
highly powerful N&gas, the irrepressible R&kshasas, Gan- 
dharbas and Yakshas used to adore him perpetually. The 
high-souled Ila being enraged, the three worlds used to be 
convulsed with terror. And albeit so very powerful the 
highly illustrious king of Valheeka never swerved from the 
path of morality nor neglected his deities and rather intelli- 
gently used to administer all business. Once on a time in 
the picturesque season of spring the mighty-armed Ila, with 
his army and conveyances, entered into a charming forest, 
and on the pretext of hunting, slew hundreds and thousands 
of deer. With slaying deer only the high-souled king 
was not satisfied. He slew millions of diverse other 
animals. In this way being engaged in hunting the 
king Ila arrived where Kartikeya was born. At that time, in 
that hilly fountain there was sporting in the company of his 
followers, the irrepressible god of gods, the three-eyed deity 
with the daughter of the Chief of mountains. Being desirous 
of satisfying the goddess UmS, her lord, whose emblem is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i8g3 RAM AY AN A. 

bull, was sporting under the guise of a female. In that forest 
land, all male animals or trees were metamorphosed into 
the other sex at that time. A-hunting, the king Ila, the son 
of Kardama,arrived at that place and saw all animals and trees 
changed into female forms. And immediately the king, 
and his army were changed into similar forms. Finding him- 
self in that plight the king Ila was greatly sorry, and thinking 
that the misfortune was owing to the influence of the god 
of gods — Umli's lord, he was greatly terrified. Thereupon 
with his followers and army the king took shelter of the high- 
souled and red-throated deity. Thereupon the great god, 
the conferror of boons, with the goddess, smiling said : — 
"Rise up, O son of Kardama, O thou of great strength, O 
gentle one, do thou beg of me any other boon than that of 
obtaining thy manhood." Being thus disappointed by the 
great deity, the king Ila, metamorposed into a female, became 
greatly sorry and did not pray for any other boon. Being 
stricken with great sorrow, the king, with whole heart, saluted 
the daughter of the mountain-chief and said : — "O goddess, 
thou art the protectress of all — thou dost confer boons on all ; 
seeing thee doth not become fruitless. Do thou therefore 
have compassion on me." Thereupon, cognizant of that 
king's intention, the goddess, with Hara's consent, said : — 
"Half of the boon, that thou shalt beg of us both, shall be 
granted by Mahadeva, and the other half shall be granted by 
me. Do thou therefore beg of me the half." Hearing of 
that excellent and wondrous boon the king became greatly 
delighted and said : — "If thou art pleased with me, O god- 
dess, do thou confer upon me this boon, that I may be for 
one month, a female gifted with wonderful beauty in the 
three worlds and for another month I may be a male." 
Thereupon understanding king's desire, the beautiful goddess 
PSrvati, mercifully said : — "The boon, according to thy 
desire, shall be granted. O king, when thou shalt attain 
to the male figure, thou shalt not remember anything of thy 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


female form. And when thou shalt assume the charming 
female figure thou shalt forget everything of thy male state." 
O Lakshmana, by virtue of this boon, the king Ila for one 
month used to become a man and for the next used to be- 
come a female, charming in the three worlds under the name 
of 115. 



.AVING heard of the story of the king Ila from Rama, 
Lakshmana and Bharata were greatly surprised. And with 
folded hands they, requesting the noble king R&ma,for further 
particulars, said :— "How could the king Ila subject himself 
to those afflictions in the shape of a female ? And how did he 
use to behave himself in his male form ?" Hearing those words 
begotten of curiosity,R5ma engaged in relating the whole story 
as he had heard before, saying : — "In the first month, assum- 
ing his female form having lotus-eyes and charming the three 
world, he used to sport in the forest abounding in groves, in 
the company of his companions metamorphosed into the 
same form. Having sent away all his conveyances he used 
to sport in the mountain vale. Thus roaming, I1& one day 
espied Budha, a bundle of rays, resembling the full moon in 
a picturesque pond filled with birds at some distance from the 
mountain. Having compassion for all creatures Budha, at 
that time, was performing, hard, glorious and wished-for 
austerities within waters. O son of Raghu, on beholding him 
I1& was greatly surprised, and with her female companions 

Digitize^ by VjOOQIC 

1895 RAM AY AN A. 

began to agitate waters. As soon as Budha saw her he was 
assailed by the arrows of Cupid. Not being able to control 
himself he grew impatient within waters and thought "This 
damsel is far more beautiful even than the celestial girls. 
I have never seen before a like beauty amongst the celestials, 
N&gas, Asuras and Apsar&s. If she has not been married 
before then she is my worthy spouse." With this resolution 
Budha got up from the waters, and repairing to his hermitage, 
sent for the fair ones. They all saluted him. Thereupon 
the virtuous-souled Budha accosted them saying : — "Whose 
daughter is this graceful girl amongst you and for what she 
has come here ? Do not delay — tell me soon." Hearing 
those sweet words of his, the females said : — "This fair damsel 
is our supreme lady. She has no husband. Journeying she 
has come here with us." Hearing those plain words, Budha 
thought of the learning by which one can perceive everything. 
And being informed of all regarding the king II& thereby he 
said — "Do ye all live in this mountain being Kimpurusas ; do 
ye make your respective habitations here. I shall give you 
always fruits and roots. O ye females, y#u shall have all 
Kimpurusas as your husbands." According to the words of 
Budha they lived in that mountain as Kimpurusas. In this 
wise many Kimpurusa-Budhas were procreated. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




_AV1NG heard of the origin of Kimpurushas, both 
Bharata and Lakshmana said to R&ma : — " This is a wonder- 
ful story/' Thereupon the highly illustrious Rama, the fore- 
most of the pious, again began with the story of Ha, the 
son of the patriarch. "Beholding the Kinnaris repairing to a 
distance, Budha the foremost of ascetics, smilling said, to 
the beautiful 1121 : — " O thou of a graceful presence, I am the 
most favourite son of the moon ; O fair one, do thou, with 
delight, cast looks upon me." Hearing the words of the 
highly effulgent and beautiful Budha in the picturesque forest 
land divested of men and animals, I1& said : — " O gentle 
one, I am not subject to any body ; I surrender myself unto 
thee out of my own accord. O son of Soma, thou mayst 
command me whatever thou wishest." Hearing those wond- 
rous words, the son of moon, possessed by lust, began to live 
with her. And living in the company of I12L ; having a grace- 
ful countenance, Budha, possessed by desire, spent the entire 
month of Madhu like a moment. Thereupon after the expiry 
of a month, the graceful king 11a, son of the pariarch, awoke 
from sleep and beholding Budha, the son of Soma, engaged 
in* austerities with uplifted hands in the midst of waters, 
said : — 'O illustrious Sir, with my followers I entered this 
dense forest — I do not see them now anywhere. Where have 
they gone ?" Hearing the words of the royal saint, who had 
lost all recollection, Budha, with sweet words consoled him 
and said : — "All thy followers have been destroyed by a 
downpour of huge rocks ; thyself, being afraid of the storm, 
was also asleep in the hermitage. Thou hast no fear now. 
Therefore, O hero, being consoled and renouncing all anxiety 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1897 RAM AY ANA. 

do thou live here happily living upon fruits and roots. " 
Being comforted by those words, the high-minded king Ha, 
striken with distress in consequence of the destruction of 
his servants, poorly replied : — "O Brahman, I shall renounce 
my own kingdom. Separated from my servants, I shall not 
be able to live even for a moment. Do thou give me 
permission in this. O Brahman, my eldest son, the highly 
illustrious Sasabindu, the foremost of the pious, shall be the 
owner of my kingdom. O Brahman, renouncing my servants 
and wives of the country I shall not be able to wait here. 
Therefore, O highly effulgent one, do thou not give me such 
an unpleasant command of remaining here." Hearing those 
wonderful words of the king Ila, Budha consoling him, 
said : — "Do thou wait here. Be not aggrieved, O highly 
powerful son of Kardama. If thou dost live here for a year, 
I shall render thy well-being." Hearing the words of Budha, 
of unwearied actions, the king Ila desired to live there. 
Thereupon becoming a man for the next month he began 
to perform ascetic penances. Thereupon in the ninth month, 
Ila, having a beautiful waist, gave birth to a highly effulgent 
son, under the name of Pururava, born of the loins of Budha, 
and equally graceful like him. And she handed over the 
highly powerful son unto his father Budha. Thereupon after 
a year Ila having regained the male form, Budha by means 
of various words afforded delight unto him. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




l,AMA having thus described the wonderful birth of 
Pururava, the illustrious Bharata and Lakshmana asked him 
again saying: — "O foremost of men, tell us what did Ha 
afterwards do after living in the company of Soma's son 
for a year." Hearing their sweet words Rama again began 
with the story of Kardama's son and said : — " In turn, the 
heroic Ila, having regained his manhood, the highly illustri- 
ous and intelligent Budha, well-informed of birth and well- 
skilled in the art of speech, sent for the highly liberal 
Sangbarta, Vrigu's son Chyavana, Aristhanemi, the foremost 
of Munis, Durvisa, capable of affording delight, and other 
friends gifted with patience and said : — "Ye all know welI,how 
this mighty-armed Ila,Kardama f s son, attained to this peculiar 
condition." Thereupon while those high-souled ones were 
conversing upon this subject, the highly effulgent Kardama 
arrived at the hermitage. Pulastya, Kratu, VashatkSr and 
the highly effulgent OmkSra came there following him. 
Being greatly delighted for their arrival they all gave out 
their individual opinion for bringing about the well-being of 
the king of VSlhakee. For the welfare of his son,the patriarch 
Kardama said : — "Hear, O twice-born ones, how the well- 
being of the king 11a may be secured. For this desease I 
do not find any other good medicine but Umi's lord. And 
save Aswamedha there is no other sacrifice more favourite 
unto the high-souled deity. Let us all therefore celebrate 
that hard sacrifice on behalf of this king." Thereupon 
Sambarta's desciple, the royal saint Marutha, the conqueror 
of enemies' cities, collected all articles for the sacrifice. 
Thereupon in the vicinity of Budha's hermitage that mighty 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 899 RAM AY AN A. 

sacrifice was celebrated. And by that the Great Rudra 
attained to delight and said to the twice-born ones, in the 
presence of the king Ha : — "O foremost of twice-born ones, 
I have been greatly delighted with this sacrifice and your 
devotion. Tell me now, what I can do for this king of 
V&lheeka." Hearing the words of Mahadeva, the Brahmanas, 
having propitiated him with great devotion, prayed for Ila's 
manhood. Thereupon delighted the highly effulgent Maha- 
deva, having conferred upon him manhood, disappeared. In 
this wise the horse-sacrifice being finished and Mahadeva 
having disappeared, the far-seeing and leading twice-born 
ones repaired to their respective hermitages. And having 
placed his eldest son Sasavindu as the king of the country 
of V2Llheeka, the king Ila reared another city in the middle 
country. In time Ila attained to the excellent Brahma 
region and his son Pururava obtained that Pratishthana 
kingdom. O foremost of men, such is the power of the horse- 
sacrifice, that the king Ila, though converted into a female, 
regained manhood by virtue thereof." 



JLLAving thus addressed his both brothers, Rama, the 
descendant of Kakuthstha of unmitigated prowess, again said 
to Lakshmana, in words pregnant with morality : — "O 
Lakshmana, having invited Vasishtha, the foremost of twice- 
born ones, conversant with all the rites of Aswamedha, 
Vamadeva, Javali, and Kashyapa and consulted with them 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


duly I 5hall set free a horse gifted with all marks." Hear- 
ing the words of R&ma, Lakshmana, of unmitigated prowess, 
invited all those Brahmanas and approached RSLma. Seeing 
them, R&ma saluted them touching their feet. And the 
Brahmanas too, beholding the irrepressible celestial, like 
R&ghava, welcomed him with blessings. Thereupon R&ma, 
with folded hands, asked of those leading twice-born ones, 
questions regarding the Aswamedha sacrifice. And hearing 
the words of R&ma, they, too, saluting the deity Rudra, began 
to speak highly of the ceremony of horse-sacrifice. And 
being informed from the Brahmanas of many unheard of 
virtues of Ashwamedha, R&ma was greatly delighted. And 
according to their desire he said to Lakshmana : — " O thou 
having long arms, do thou soon send an emissary to the 
high-souled Sugriva, communicating unto him • Do thou 
come here to enjoy festivities in the company of all those 
highly powerful monkeys and bears, under thee ; may good 
betide thee.' See that Bhibhishana of unequalled prowess, 
the king of R&kshasas, encircled by his followers, coursing 
at will, may be present at the horse sacrifice. Let the great 
kings, wishing my welfare with their followers, be present 
at the sacrific. O Lakshmana, do thou also invite carefully, 
for witnessing the ceremony,other pious foreign kings who are 
friendly unto me. O thou having long arms, do thou also 
invite the Rishis, having asceticism for their wealth and 
other pious Brahmanas living in various provinces. Do thou 
also invite actors and songsters. Do thou order that a 
spacious, sacrificial ground may be made on the banks of the 
river Gometi in the Naimisha forest. O thou having long 
arms, that part of the country is best suited and holy. And 
let ceremonies, invoking peace, be celebrated everywhere. 
O thou conversant with piety, do thou soon invite hundreds 
of subjects, so that they all, having witnessed the ceremony 
in the Naimisha forest, may return delighted and honored. 
O thou having long arms, let Bharata go before with a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

igoi RAM AY AN A. 

million of beasts carrying rice, sessamun seed, Kindney bean, 
Chickpea, pulse, Masha (a sort of Kindney bean) salt, oil, 
clarified butter and a hundred koti of silver and golden coins. 
Let merchants, to set up shops on the way, actors, dancers, 
cooks, and many youthful females follow Bharata. Let 
soldiers go before him. And let the highly illustrious Bharata, 
with children, old men,Brahmanas, citizens, servants, cashiers, 
mothers, wives and the golden image of my wife to be 
initiated at the sacrifice, go before." According to the com- 
mand of Rama, Bharata, with Satrughna, made arrangements 
for highly valuable quarters, food, drink and clothes. And the 
highly powerful monkeys with Sugriva and Brahmanas 
engaged in the work of distribution. And Bibhishana, 
surrounded by various Rakshas and females, engaged in the 
service of the high-souled Rishis intent on hard penances. 


JLJ AVING speedily despatched before all articles of 
sacrifice, Bharata' s elder brother Rama set free a black horse, 
gifted with all marks and worthy of the sacrifice and placed 
Lakshmana with Rittwigas in charge of it. Thereupon the 
mighty-armed Kakuthstha, in the company of his soldiers, 
proceeded to the Naimisha forest and beholding the 
wonderful sacrificial ground attained to an excess of delight 
and said : — 'It has become highly charming." And while 
he remained in the Naimisha forest, all the kings sent him 
presents and Rama also made returns. And diverse food, 
drink and clothes were offered to the kings when they 
arrived there with profuse presents. Bharata, with Satrughna, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


engaged in attending upon the kings. The high-souled 
monkeys, with Sugriva, being self-controlled engaged in 
attending upon the Brahmanas. Bibhishana, in the company 
of many Rakshasas, with a collected mind, began to serve 
the Rishis, having asceticism for their wealth. And the 
highly powerful Rama, the foremost of men, set aside 
raluable houses for the accomodation of the high-souled 
kings. Under these proper arrangements the horse-sacrifice 
commenced. Lakshmana engaged in looking after the 
sacrificial horse. In this wise R&ma, a lion amongst the 
kings, undertook the celebration of the horse-sacrifice. And 
in that Ashwamedha of R2Lma presents were given unto 
people as long as they were not satisfied. There was no 
other sound audible at that time save that of 'Give ! Give !!." 
In sooth at the horse-sacrifice of the high-souled Rim a, to 
their fullest satisfaction, sweets and other things were distri- 
buted unto people. Indeed before words came out from 
the lips of the beggars, monkeys and Rakshasas satisfied 
them with gifts. And all the ascetics living for ever 
and having asceticism for wealth that were present there, 
could not think of any other sacrifice, accompanied by so 
profuse presents, they had seen before In that sacrifice, 
those, who wished for gold, obtained it, those who wished for 
property got it and those, who longed for jewels, received 
them. In this wise before all, enough of gold, jewels, and 
clothes were given away. The ascetics said : — " We have 
never seen before a sacrifice like this, Indra's, Soma's, 
Yama's or Varuna's. And being present everywhere the 
Rakshasas and V&naras gave away enough of riches and 
clothes even unto them who did not want. And though this 
sacrifice, gifted with all marks, of Rama, a lion among kings, 
continued for a year still his accumulated treasure was not 
exhausted, but rather was increased. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1903 RAM AY ANA. 


JL HAT sacrifice, the like of which was never seen before, 
having been undertaken the illustrious ascetic Valmiki, with 
his desciples, came there. And beholding this wonderful 
sacrifice resembling that of the celestials, his followers, the 
Rishis, made charming cottages in a solitary corner and at no 
distance. Inside the highly charming cottage of Valmiki they 
placed his picturesque car full of fruits and roots. Thereupon 
Valmiki said to his desciples, Lava and Kusa . — "Do ye care- 
fully and delightedly sing the whole of Ramayana in the 
highly holy hermitages, of the Rishis, in the homes where 
perpetual fire is kept up by the Brahmanas, in streets and 
palaces, at the gate of Rama's house, in the sacrificial arena 
and before all Ritwigas. And eating all those sweet fruits 
that are on the summit of the mountan near our hermitage, 
do ye engage in chanting the sweet Ramayana. If you 
begin singing after taking all those sweet fruits you shall 
not experience exhaustion in singing nor you shall forget 
measure. If Rama, the lord of earth, invites you to sing 
the Ramayana, you may fearlessly sing it there in due notes 
and measures before the assembled ascetics. During the 
day do ye sing, in your sweet voice, twenty sections out of 
many I have laid in the Ramayana consisting of many 
slokas. Do not cherish the least longing for riches. Of 
what avail is wealth unto ascetics living perpetually on fruits 
and roots ? If Rama asks you about your father you may 
say, " We are both desciples of the high souled Valmiki. 
O Kusa and Lava, in your proper mood do you sing the 
sweet song with charming Murchana accompanied by the 
sweet notes of Vina. Before you begin with the song, with* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


out disregarding the king, do you bow unto him reverentially. 
Morally the king is the father of all. Do you therefore 
both, delightedly and with a collected mind, early in the 
morning, sing the theme in a sweet voice and accompanied 
by the music of the stringed instrument." Having in this 
wise given counsels, the highly generous and great ascetic 
Vilmiki, son of Pracheta, became silent. Being thus com- 
manded by the ascetic, J&nakis' sons, Lava and Kusa, the 
slayers of enemies, issued out therefrom saying. ' So we 
shall do.' Like unto the two Aswins following the moral 
precepts of Sukra, the two princes, placing those wonderful 
counsels of Vilmiki in their minds, spent the night with a 
heart stricken with curiousity. 


X HEREUPON the night being over, having bathed and 
performed the Homa, both Lava and Kusa, in consonance with 
Rishi's command, began the song. That song was composed 
by the first preceptor(Valmiki) neverheard of before,consisting 
of sounds originating from six places, containing all metres, 
many proofs and set in accompaniment with the music of a 
stringed instrument. Hearing such a song from the boys 
Rima was striken with curiosity. Thereupon taking leave 
from business for some time and inviting the great ascetic 
Vilmiki, kings, learned men, persons well-versed in Nyaya, 
Puranas and science of words, all old men, twice-born ones, 
those conversant with the signs of music, Brahmmas desirous 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


of hearing the Ramayana, persons deep read in palmistry, 
Gandharbas, citizens, all those who have mastered the use 
of words, letters and Samasas, those who have studied well 
metres, those well informed in the science of music, those 
well-versed in astronomy, those who are well up in the 
knowledge of rites and ceremonies, those expert in the des- 
patch of business, logicians whose fame has spread far and 
wide, those well-versed in reasonings and arguments, poets, 
historians, Vedic Brahmanas, painters, and songsters Rama 
resquested Lava and Kusa lovingly to sing the song before the 
assembly. The audience being seated there and engaged in 
conversation with one another those two Muni boys began 
with the song enhancing the delight of all. Wondrous and 
charming was their song and the audience were not by any 
means satiated with the hearing thereof. Greatly delighted 
the highly effulgent ascetics and kings again and again 
looked towards them as if drinking them up with their eyes. 
And they all attentively said to one another — "Both of them 
take after Rama, like unto a bubble resembling the one it 
rises from. There would not have been perceived the least 
difference between them and Rama had they not been 
cloathed in bark and used clotted hair." The citizens and 
villagers speaking thus with one another Kusa and Lava 
chanted twenty sections beginning from the first, pointed 
out by Narada. Having heard up to twentieth section, 
Rama, fond of his brothers, said to Lakshmana in the after- 
noon, "O Kakutstha, do thou soon confer upon these two 
high-souled ones eighteen thousand gold coins and all other 
things they wish for." Thereupon when Lakshmana address- 
ed himself in no time to give them gold coins separately 
Kusa and Lava, not accepting them and surprisingly said : — 
"We are dewellers of a forest, living upon roots and fruits— 
what shall we do with them (coins) ? Therefore living in 
the forest what shall we do with the gold ?" Hearing those 
words Rama and the audience were greatly worked up with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


curiosity and surprise. Thereupon being anxious to learn 
of the origin of the poem, the highly effulgent R&ma asked 
the two Muni boys, saying. "What is the proof of the story 
of this poem ? How great is his fame who has composed it ? 
What leading ascetic is the author of this great poem ?" 
Rama having thus asked them those two Muni boys said : — 
"The illustrious Vftlmiki is the author of this poem. He has 
described in this poem thine endless story. He has of late 
come to thy sacrifice. The great ascetic Vftlmiki has com- 
posed this poem consisting of a hundred stories and twenty 
four thousand slokas. O king, that high-minded ascetic is 
our preceptor. He has described thy actions in six books 
beginning with the first consisting of five hundred sections. 
All good actions performed by thee since thy birth have been 
recorded in this. O mighty car-warrior, O king, if thou dost 
wish to hear the whole of it, do thou, at thy leisure, hear it 
delightedly in the company of thy younger brothers." 
Saying 'so it shall be* Rama bade them adieu and they too, 
delighted, repaired to where Valmiki, the foremost of Munis 
was. Thereupon having heard that charming song in the 
company of ascetics and kings the high-minded Rftma repaired 
to the place of business. He heard the Ramayana. sung by 
Kusa and Lava, gifted with musical characteristics, consisting 
of sections, vowels, and consonant and enchanted in accom- 
paniment with the music of a stringed instrument. 



jAMK heard that highly sacred theme for many long 
days in the company of ascetics, kings and Vanaras. And 
understanding from the story that Kusa and Lava were Janaki's 

Digitized by VjjOOQ IC 

1907 RAM AY AN A. 

sons, Rama mentioning her name said before the assem- 
bly : — " Send a good emissary unto the illustrious 
Valmiki and let him communicate unto the ascetics that if 
JSLnaki is sinless and has lead a pure life in the forest ; let 
her give proof of purety by the great ascetic's permission. 
Let the emissaries learn well the intention of the ascetic in 
this and if Sita is at heart willing to bring in proofs. To 
uphold her as well as mine purity, let Maithili, the daughter 
of Janaka, swear before the assembly." Hearing those 
wonderful words ef Rama, the emissaries speedily went to 
VSlmiki and saluting the high-souled (ascetic) burning 
in his effulgence and of incomparable lustre, communicated 
unto him, in sweet words all what Rama had said. Hearing 
the words of the messengers and understanding Rama's 
intention the ascetic said : — l What Rama has said 
shall be satisfied. May good betide you. Husband 
is the greatest god for women. So Sita shall carry out 
his behests." The great ascetic having said this, the highly 
powerful emissaries, approaching Rama, communicated unto 
him what the Muni had said. Hearing the words of the high- 
souled Valmiki, Rama was greatly delighted. Having ad- 
dressed the assembled Rishis and kings he said : — " The 
Rishis with their desciples, and the kings with their followers 
and all others willing shall see Sita swear here." Hearing 
the words of the high-souled Rama, all the high-souled 
Rishis began to speak of him in high terms and said : "O 
foremost of men, such an action becomes thee not any one 
else." Thereupon having settled that Sita would swear 
next day, Rama, the slayer of enemies, dismissed them all. 
And having made arrangements that Sita would go through 
the trial next day, the high-minded, generous king Rama 
bade adieu unto all kings and Rishis. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



J^l ExT morning Rama, being present in the sacrificial 
ground and having sent for the Rishis, Vasishtha, Vamadeva 
Javali, Kashyapa, Viswamitra, carrying on penances for a 
long time, Durvasa, Pulastya of hard austerities, Salastri, 
Vargava, Markandaya living long, the highly illustrious 
Madgalya, Gargya, Chyavana, Satananda, conversent witW 
religions, effulgent VaradwiyS, Agnis'son Vasuprava, NSrada r 
Parvata, the great Gautama and other ascetics of firm vows r 
assembled with mwids possessed by curiosity. The highly 
powerful R&kshasas and monkeys also came there out of 
curiosity. Besides thousands and thousands of Kshatryas^ 
Vaisyas, Sudras and Brahmans of firm penances, also hailed 
there from various parts to witness Site's trial. Having 
arrived there they all sat down motionless like mountains. 
Thereupon, Valmiki, the foremost of ascetics, speedily came- 
there accompanied by SitSL. With her face downwards, folded 
palms, eyes full of tears and meditating upon Rama in her 
mind, SitS, following the Rishi, came before the assembly. 
There arose a great uproar of eulogy from the assembly when 
they saw Sita following Valmiki like unto Sruti following 
Brahmft. Thereupon members, stricken with sorrow, made 
a tumultuous sound. Amongst the visitors some praised 
Rama, some praised Sita and others eulogised both of them. 
Thereupon having entered that huge assemblage in company 
of Sita, the great ascetic Valmiki addressed Rim a, saying : — 
" O son of Dacaratha, in fear of calumny, thou didst renounce 
her near my hermitage, albeit Sita is pure and follows the 
ways of morality. O Rama of firm vows, thou art afraid of 
the censure of the people. SitJL has becoming willing to 
give testimony (of her purity) for removing the calumny of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1909 RAM AY AN A. 

the public ; do thou mercifully give her permission in this. 
I tell you the truth, O Rama, that these irrepressible twin 
brothers are your sons, O descendant of Raghu. I am 
the tenth son of Pracheta, so, far from speaking untruth 
it does not even spring up in my mind. I therefore 
know the truth that these twins are thy sons. I have 
performed austere penances for many thousand years ; I now 
swear before thee, that if this Maithili is found touched 
by any sin I shall not reap the fruit; of my ascetic observances 
extending over many thousand years. I have never perpe- 
trated before a crime, either in my mind, body, or speech. 
If Maithili is found divested of sin I may then partake of 
the fruits of piety. O descendant of Raghu, finding Sita 
pure in mind and five elements of body I took her near the 
spring in the forest. Besides this Sita, of pure ways, divested 
of sins and ever considering her husband as deity; shall give 
testimony this day. Thou hast been afraid of the public 
calumny. O son of a king, thy mind being possessed by the 
fear of public scandal, thou didst renounce this Sita of a pure 
character and always regarding her husband as a god ; I 
came to know this by virtue of my discriminative knowledge.*' 



.FTER the great Rishi Valmiki had said this, Rama, on 
beholding the daughter of Janaka resembling a celestial, in 
the midst of the assembly, with folded hands, said : — "O 
great one, thou art conversant with piety. By thy words 
shorn of sin, I have been convinced that Janaki is of pure 
ways. Still, O Brahman, what thou hast commanded shall 
be carried out ; let Sita produce testimony of the purity of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


her character. Because Vaidehi formerly underwent a trial 
in the city of Lanka before the celestials I brought her home. 
O Brahman, vilification of the people is very powerful. 
Although I know that J&naki has not been touched by any 
sin still I have renounced her. Do thou therefore forgive 
me. I know that these twin brothers Kusa and Lava are 
my sons. Yet if Jftnaki gives evidence of her own purity 
before the assembly I shall be greatly satisfied." Being 
apprised of Rama's intention as to Sit&'s trial the celestials 
all came there on the occasion. The Adityas, VaSus, Rudras, 
Viswadevas, Maruts, S&dhyas, Siddhas, N&gas and Rishis 
placing Brahmft before them, all came there. And beholding 
the celestials and Rishis assembled there R&ma again said to 
V&lmiki : — "O foremost of Munis, the words, of the high- 
souled Rishis, are divested of sin ; therefore on thy words 
only I shall consider SiUL as having pure ways. Still all have 
come here being anxious to witness Sit&'s trial. I shall 
therefore be greatly delighted if J&naki gives in before them 
any testimony of her pure character." As soon as those 
words were uttered, sweet, fragrant, cold air, the witness of 
virtue and vice, blowing mildly, excited the joy of the assem- 
bly. People, hailing from various countries, with all attention 
began to witness this wondrous and unthought of event. 
In the golden age only the celestial wind used to blow — and 
it oow blew even in the Tret& Yuga and forsooth it was a 
matter of exceeding surprise. Thereupon beholding all 
people assembled there, Janaka's daughter, wearing a red 
cloth, with her face and looks downwards and folded palms 
said : — "I have never thought of any other person in my 
mind but Rlma ; by the strength of this virtue let the god- 
dess Vasundhar& give me room. I have always with my 
mind, body and words prayed for R&ma's well-being and by 
virtue hereof may the goddess Vasundhari give me room 
in her womb. 11 As soon as Sitft swore in this wise a wonder- 
ful incident took place. From inside the earth a celestial 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

igi I RAM AY AN A. 

and excellent throne rose up. It was carried on head by the 
Nigas of unmitigated prowess, having celestiaf persons and 
adorned with celestial jewels and ornaments. Having 
stretched out her arms and taken Maithili, the goddess earth 
welcomed her and placed her on the throne. And while 
seated on the throne she was entering the earth, she was 
covered with the continued showers of celestial flowers. 
Eulogising her at that time, the celestials said : — u Oh I highly 
praiseworthy is thy conduct, O SitfL" Being present in the 
welkin .and beholding Sita enter into the Earth, the celestials 
again and again eulogised her in various words. The Rishis, 
kings and other leading men present in the sacrificial arena 
repeatedly expressed their surprise. Beholding Sita's censure 
thus removed all animals, animate or inanimate, either on 
earth or in the sky, were greatly delighted. Some cried aloud 
in joy, some remained silent, and some motionless espied 
Rama or SitSL In this wise beholding Sita's entrance into 
the Earth the ascetics were greatly delighted. They all 
attaining to the same state of mind, the whole universe, for 
a moment, was possessed with the state of equality. 




MTA having entered Rasatala, all the monkeys and 
Rishis repeatedly eulogised her before R&ma. Stricken with 
sorrow and grief and lowering down his head, Rama, with 
eyes full of tears, face downwards, and a dejected mind, sat 
down. And being possessed by grief and anger and shedding 
tears he wept for some time and then said : — "My mind is 
about to be possessed by grief, which I had never experienced 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


before, for in the very presence of mine the graceful Janaki, 
like Lakshmi herself, hath disappeared from view. Formerly, 
in my absence, Janaki was once carried away into the city 
of Lanka, on the other side of the great ocean and I brought 
her back ; what wonder it is that I shall get her back from 
Patala ? O goddess Vasudha, do thou soon bring Sita in 
my view, or else, worked up with ire I shall give thee the 
fruits of thy negligence. Thou art my mother-in-law, since 
the royal saint Janaka obtained Sita from thy womb while 
cultivating thee with plough share. Do thou therefore bring 
back my Sita or give me a region of the celestials, I wish to 
live with Sita. I am beside myself for her : do thou therefore 
bring back Sita. If thou dost not render back Sita unto me 

Vasudha, I shall deluge the earth with waters, having 
assailed, destroyed and drowned into water thy huge com- 
pass with mountains and forests." Rama, having given vent 
to those accents under the influence of ire, the patriarch 
Brahma, with the consent of the celestials, said : — " O Rama 
of firm vows, O slayer of enemies, thou shouldst not grieve 
thus. Recollect thy former state of Vishnu and the counsels. 

1 would not have reminded thee of this secret but for the 
present necessity. Do thou now once more remember thy 
birth from Vishnu. By nature, Sita is pure, chaste and ever 
dependent upon thee. And by virtue of her ascetic depen- 
dance upon thee she has gone to the region of Nagas. Thou 
shalt again meet her in heaven. Hear, what I communicate unto 
thee before the assembly. Thou shalt be informed of every* 
thing by listening to this excellent poem describing thy own 
actions, O hero. Valmiki has described herein all miseries and 
joys thou hast experienced since thy birth and what shall 
happen in future after Sita's entrance into Patala. O Rama, 
this first epic poem, Ramayan, has been composed describing 
thy works. None but thee is worthy of the fame of this 
poem. O Raghava, O highly illustrious one, do thou hear with 
the Rishis, Uttarakandam, the last portion of this poem. O 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


descendant of Raghu, this is not worthy of being heard by any 
but those who art the foremost of the royal saints/' Having 
said this, the deity Brahma, the lord of the three worlds, with 
other deities, repaired to the region of immortals. The high- 
souled and the highly effulgent ascetics, living in Brahma's 
region, who were present in the assembly, obtaining Brahmas 
permission, waited there, to hear Ramas future carreer in the 
Uttarakandam. Hearing the words of the great Patriarch 
instinct with well-being, the highly effulgent Rama said to 
Valmiki : — " O illustrious sir, the Rishis living in Brahmas' 
region have grown desirous of hearing my future history. 
So let it be taken up next morning. ,, Having thus settled 
and taken with him Kusa and Lava and sent away the assem- 
bled people he entered his palace and spent the night 
mourning for Sita. 



JL HE night being over and having invited the leading 
ascetics, Rama told his sons to sing the poem fearlessly. 
Thereupon the high-souled Rishis having taken their seats 
Kusa and Lava began the last / portion of the Uttarakandam. 
Siti having entered PStala by the strength of her vow, and 
the sacrifice having terminated, RSma grew poorly in spirit. 
In Janaki's absence the whole world appeared to him as 
blank. Now being overwhelmed with grief he lost all mental 
peace. Having conferred various gifts upon the kings, 
Rakshasas, monkeys, and leading Brahmanas, Rama sent them 
away and meditating upon Sita's absence entered Ajoydhya. 
And from the time of Sita's entering into Pat&la he did 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


not take any other spouse. And having made a golden image 
of SitH he engaged in the performance of various sacrifices. 
In this wise for thousand years he celebrated many Horse- 
sacrifices, many Bajpeyas with profuse gold, Agnisomas, 
Atiritras, numberless Gomedhas and various other sacrifices. 
Rama being engaged in governing the kingdom and per- 
forming many pious rites long time passed away. And 
being under his subjection, bears, monkeys, Rakhasas and 
kings always afforded delight unto him. On account of 
showers in proper time there was enough of food in his 
kingdom. The quarters were pure and delightful. The 
citizens and villagers were happy and heakhy. None 
met with premature death. In fact, in his regime all cala- 
mities were removed. Thereupon after many years, the 
illustrious, Kausalya, Rima's mother, surrounded by her sons 
and grand-sons, breathed her last. Performing many 
pious observances Kakeyi followed her and obtained peace 
in the land of immortals. Those noble ladies, being united 
with the king Da^aratha, in heaven, were greatly delighted 
and obtained all virtues. Besides, having worshipped the 
deities and manes on the occasion of his father's Sridha 
ceremony the high-souled Rama distributed many jewels 
and engaged in the performance of a very difficult sacrifice. 
In this wise having performed many sacrifices and multiplied 
pieties he spent many thousand years in happiness. 


\J NCE on a time Yudhajit, the king of Kekaya, sent 
unto the high-souled Rama, Gargya — son of his own pre- 
ceptor Angeras — a Brahmin saint of unmitigated prowess; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


i6i5 RAM AY AN A. 

and with him he sent, as tokens of affections, gifts of ten 
thousand horses, numberless blankets, various jewels, diverse 
clothes and well washed coverlets. Hearing of the arrival 
of the great saint Gargya with above valuable presents sent 
by his material uncle Yudhajit, the intelligent Rama, with 
his brothers, proceeded about a Krosa to receive him and 
adored him particularly likely unto the lord of celestials 
honoring Vrihaspati. Having thus welcomed that foremost 
of Rishis and accepted the valuable presents sent by his 
maternal uncle he asked the ascetic about his welfare in every 
thing. Thereupon the great Rishi being seated, he iaid :— 
" Thou art the foremost of those skilled in the art of speech 
like the very preceptor of the celestials. Since thine own self 
hath come here my uncle must have commissioned thee with 
a very important message." Hearing those words of Rama 
the great saint communicated unto him the object of his 
coming, saying. — "O thou having long arms, if thou dost 
like, hear what loving words thy maternal uncle Yudhajit, 
the foremost of men, has said. The Gandharvas, holding 
weapons and expert in warfare, guard that beautiful province 
abounding in fruits and roots on the banks of the river" 
Sindhu. O hero, those Gandharbas are Sailuska's sons — highly 
powerful and three kotis in number. Having hoisted thy 
flag of victory and conquered that highly picturesque city 
of Gandharbas do thou include that kingdom within thine 
well-established territories. None can enter there. O thou 
having long arms, I do not request thee for any harm of thine. 
Let that highly charming country be liked by thee." Hearing 
the words of the maternal uncle communicated by the great 
saint, Rama, with delight, said : — " What you have commanded 
shall be satisfied." Saying this he looked towards Bharata 
and delightedly and with folded hands said to the Rishi " O 
Brahmarshi, these two princes are Bharata's sons and their 
names are Taksha and Pushkala. Being well protected by 
uncle Yudhajit and preceded by Bharata with army and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


followers they shall, subjugate the Gandharbas and divide 
the kingdom between them. Having established two king- 
doms and installed his two sons there Bharata, the foremost 
of the pious, shall come back to me. 

Having thus said to the Brahmarshi, Rama commanded 
Bharata and welcomed the two princes. Thereupon under 
the auspices of favourable stars, having placed Gargya before 
them, Bharata with the princes and army, issued out of the 
city of Ayodhya. And Rama's army unconquerable eveiv 
by the celestials went on for a month, from the city like a 
celestial host nnder the command of Indra. Animals, living 
upon flesh and huge-bodied Rakshasas longing for blood 
followed Bharata. Besides many thousand birds, moving 
in the sky, lions, tigers and boars went before the army. 
The army, consisting of delighted and healthy subjects spen- 
ding half a month in the way, arrived at the Kekaya kingdom 
in good health. 


Jj. EARING of the arrival of the Bharata with the army 
Gargya and Yudhajit, the king of Kekayas, were greatly 
delighted. And with a huge army they speedily went out for 
conquering the Gandharbas. Thereupon the highly power- 
ful and light-armed Bharata and Yudhajit, with the soldiers 
and followers, arrived at the city of Gandharbas. Having 
heard of the coming of Bharata the highly powerful Gan- 
dharbas gathered round and sont up leonine roars. There- 
upon began the battle capable of making down erect and 
continued for a week. On neither side there was victory 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i 9 i7 RAM AY AN A. 

or defeat. On all sides there flowed streams of blood 
and there were afloat human bodies. Daggers, Saktis and 
bows were like the banks of the river. Thereupon enraged 
Bharata, Rama's younger brother, discharged a dreadful 
arrow named Sangharata resembling the fire of dissolution 
against Gandharbas. Having bound them all with the noose 
of death and sundered them with Sangharata, Bharata des- 
patched all the Gandharbas to the abode of death. Ever* 
the celestials could not recollect if such a dreadful encounter 
had happened before. In a moment the huge Gandharba 
host was slain. After the destruction of the Gandharbas,. 
KaikeyPs son Bharata set up two excellent and prosper- 
ous cities in the province of Gandharba. And he placed 
Taksha in Takshasila and Pushkala in Pushkalabati. 
Both the cities were filled with profuse riches and jewels 
and covered with various gardens. As for many orna- 
ments both of them as if vied with one another. By just 
purchases and sales, and by the conduct of the people 
the cities grew highly charming. Both of them were filled 
with gardens and conveyances. Rows of shops were well 
arranged by the streets in both the cities. Both of them 
were adorned with many excellent fancy articles, picturesque 
houses, charming palaces and many beautiful and high Tala,. 
Tamala, Tilaka and Vakula trees. Having reared up those 
two cities within five years, Rama's younger brother, the 
mighty armed Bharata, son of Kaikeyi, returned to Ajodhyav 
And like unto Vasava saluting Brahma he adored the high- 
souled Raghava the very personation of virtue and com- 
municated unto him duly the destruction of the Gandhar- 
bas and the establishment of the two cities. And hear- 
ing the words of Bharata, Rama attained to an excess of 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XjLearing the wonderful words of Bharata both Rama 
and Lakshmana were greatly delighted. And then Rama 
said to Lakshmana : — " Saumitri, thy two sons, Angada 
and Chandraketu are well-versed in religions, perfectly 
qualified in governing the kingdom and highly powerful. 
I shall therefore install them on throne. O gentle one, do 
thou find out such a country where these two skillful archers 
may unobstructed roam about. And where if a kingdom is 
established it might not disturb the peace and happiness of 
other kings." Rama, having finished his speech Bharata 
replied : — " The country of Karupada is highly picturesque 
and freed from all thorns. Let the city for Angada be 
established there. And let the beautiful country of Chandra- 
dyuti be the kingdom of Chandraketu/' Rama approved of 
the words of Bharata and having brought the country of 
Karupada under his subjection gave it to Angada. He 
reared a beautiful and well-protected city for Angada. 
And in the country of Mallya he reared a city for 
Chandraketu, named Chandrakanti highly picturesque and 
like unto the city of celestials. Thereupon greatly de- 
lighted Rama, irrepressible in battle, Lakshmana and 
Bharata, having performed the ceremony of installation 
ordered them to go their respective cities. Angada started 
towards the West and Chandraketu towards the North. 
Sumitra's son Lakshmana went with Angada and Bharata 
accompanied Chandraketu. Having spent a year in 
Angada's city and finding his son well established in the 
kingdom Lakshmana returned to Ayodhya. And Bharata, 
according to his desire, having spent more than a year in the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1919 RAM AY AN A. 

city of Chandrakanti, came back to Ajodhya and saluted 
Rama's feet. The pious Lakshmana and Bharata — both the 
brothers, were greatly attached unto Rama ; and though they 
spent their days in another place they did not experience 
any pain in consequence of separation from their sons- 
Observing all virtues in this way, Rama, the foremost of 
the x pious, Bharata and Lakshmana governed the subjects 
for ten thousand years. Having spent their days in the 
city of Ajodhya, the very city of virtue, the three brothers,, 
appearing graceful like the burning fire receiving oblations 
in a great sacrifice, attained to joy in the fullness of 'time- 


XN this wise the virtuous Rama having spent some time 
Kala, assuming the shape of an ascetic, arrived at the 
palace gate. And beholding the intelligent Lakshmana at 
the door he said : " Do thou communicate (unto Rama) 
that for some important business I have come here. I am 
the messenger of the great saint Atibala of incomparable 
effulgence. O thou of great strength, for a particular busi- 
ness, I have come here to see Rama." Hearing the words of 
the great saint, Saumitri speedily went to Raghava and com- 
municated unto him the arrival of the ascetic, saying: — 
" O tkou of great effulgence, observing the royal duties* 
mayst thou acquire victory in both the worlds; one ambas- 
sador radiant like the sun by virtue of his asceticism, has 
come here to visit thee. ,, Hearing the words of Lakshmana 
Rama said : — " Do thou speedily bring here the highly 
effulgent ascetic bringing in a message." Thereupon say- 
ing " So be it," Saumitri conducted, the effulgent ascetic unto 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Rama's house. And having approached Rama the foremost ? 
of Raghus, the ascetic, burning in his own energy, said to him, 
in sweet accents : — " O great king, may prosperity crown 
thee." And having welcomed him with water and Argya 
the highly effulgent Rama asked him about his well-being. 
Being asked by Rama as to his welfare, that foremost of 
ascetics, skilled in the art of speech, sat on a golden seat. 
Thereupon welcoming him Rama said: — "Do thou commu- 
nicate unto me his words by whom thou hast been sent." 
Being thus addressed by Rama, a lion amongst kings, the 
ascetic said: — "If dost thou wish to bring about the well- 
being of the celestials, my earnest desire is that we 
may talk over it in a solitary; place. And if thou hast any 
regard for the words of that foremost of ascetics, do thou 
so order that whoever shall hear or see us, when we shall 
converse in a solitary place, shall be slain by thee. There- 
upon Rama promised that it should be done and said to 
Lakshmana : — " O thou having long arms, sending away the 
warder do thou wait at the gate. When I shall talk with 
this ascetic in this solitary room whoever, shall hear or 
see us, shall be slain by me." Having thus placed 
Lakshmana at the gate Rama said to that Rishi : — " O great 
saint, tell me what he has communicated unto thee. O 
Muni, what is thy intention and by what high-souled Rishi 
thou hast been sent here. Tell me all this without any fear. 
I have become anxious to hear it." 


± HEREUPON the great saint said : — " Hear, O king, O 
thou gifted with great energy, for what I have come here. 
O thou of great strength, the great Patriarch has sent 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1921 RAM AY ANA. 

me to thee. hero, I am thy son. Thou didst, in thy 
pristine birth, beget me on Maya— I am Kala, the des- 
troyer of all. Lord Brahma, the father of all creatures, has 
said that thou didst promise to preserve the three worlds. 
Formerly when having slain all animals by thy Maya 
thou wert asleep in the waters of the mighty deep I was born. 
Thereafter thou didst create the huge-bodied Ananta, living 
in the waters as the king of serpents. Then thou didst 
create two highly powerful Asuras named Madhu and 
Kaithabha. At that time the bones of those two Asuras 
having been scattered far and wide this earth containing 
many mountains was named Medini. Having procreated 
me in thy lotus navel, dazzling in celestial brilliance 
thou didst employ me in the work of generation. I took the 
charge and procreated men ; but finding no other means to 
preserve them I worshipped thee, the lord of the universe and 
said : — O lord, thou shouldst protect the creatures, for thou 
art my father and giver of energy and therefore irrepressible. 
Thereupon for concerting means for the preservation of 
creatures, thou didst renounce thy irrepressible shape and 
assume Vishnu form. And.taking thy birth from Aditi's 
powerful son, thou wert engaged in enhancing the delight of 
my brothers. Thou didst use to protect the deities whenever 
they were assailed by any calamity. O lord of the universe, 
it is for that reason, on beholding the destruction of creatures 
thou wert born on earth to slay the Ten-necked demon. 
And at that time thou didst promise that thou wouldst live 
in the land of mortals for eleven thousand years. Thereupon 
thou didst assume a human form to carry out thine desire. 
Now that period is ripe and this is the proper time to inform 
thee of it. O great king, do thou wait in this land of mortals 
if dost thou wish to govern people for some time more. 
And if dost thou wish to repair to the region of immortals, 
do thou again lord over the deities in thy Vishnu form and 
let them be freed from anxiety. O Hero, the Patriarch hath 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


sent this intelligence unto thee/ 9 Hearing those unequalled 
words of the Patriarch from the mouth of K&la, the destroyer 
of all, Rftma smiling said : — " I have been greatly pleased 
mod happy for thy coming here, O my son. I descended on 
earth to bring about the well-being of the three worlds. May 
good betide thee. I shall now repair to from where I have 
come here. I was thinking of this when thou didst come 
here. Therefore, I have no doubt in this. O lord of destruc- 
tion, the immortals are dependent on me, so I shall be with 
them in all works. The Great Patriarch has said the truth.' 1 



HlLE R3ma and Kftla were thus conversing with one 
another, the great ascetic Durv&sft arrived at the gate for 
seeing Rftma and approaching Lakshmana said :— " O 
Saumitri, do thou soon take me to Rama ; my time goes away, 
so do thou take me first." Hearing the words of the ascetic, 
Lakshmana, the slayer of enemies worshipping the feet of 
that high-souled one, said :— " O illustrious Sir, kindly men- 
tion thy business. What is thy object ? Order me what I 
am to do. Rftma is engaged in some business so kindly 
wait here for some time/' Hearing those words that fore- 
most of Rishis, Durvftsft, impatient with rage, said with 
blood-red eyes : — " O Saumitri, if dost thou not go even 
this very moment and communicate unto Rima my arrival, 
I ihall impricate thee, Rftma, Bharata, Sutrughana, your 
sons and grand-sons. I shall curse also thy kingdom and 
cities. I cannot any longer restrain my growing ire. 1 ' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1923 RAM AY AN A. 

Hearing those dreadful and resolute words of the Rishi, 
Lakshmana thought within himself : — " My own destruction 
is far more desirable than that of all." Having thus re- 
solved Lakshmana approached R&ma and communicated 
unto him the intelligence. Hearing the words of Lakshmana 
and having bade adieu, unto K&la, Rama soon came out and 
saw Atri's son. And having saluted that great and powerful 
ascetic he with folded hands, said " What is thine business." 
Hearing the words of R§ma, the highly powerful Durv&sa, 
the foremost of Munis, said. " Hear, O R&ma fond of virtue. 
For a thousand years I have carried on the vow of fasting. 
It has terminated to-day, so do thou give me food as much 
as possible." Hearing those words R£ma was greatly 
delighted and gave proper food unto that ascetic. And 
feasting .on that .nectar-like sweet food, DurvSsS, the foremost 
of Rishis, thanked Rama and repaired to his own hermitage. 
Thereupon remembering the words of Kala, Rama was 
greatly sorry. And thinking of those dreadful words he 
was overwhelmed with grief. And with a poorly heart, and 
face downwards he remained silent for some time. There- 
upon thinking of Kala's words and determining that every 
calamity would befall him, that highly illustrious descendant, 
of Raghus, summoned patience. 


X HEREUPON beholding Rama with his head down- 
wards and poorly like unto the moon possessed by R&bu, 
Lakshmana, delightedly and with sweet words, said ; — •• Be 
not aggrieved for me, O thou having mighty arms. Such is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the course of time ; the movements of creatures are destined 
by their pristine actions, good or bad. O gentle one, do 
thou satisfy thy promise slaying me without any hesitation. 
O Kakuthstha, those, who cannot carry out their promises, 
repair to hell. O great king, if thou hast any love or affec- 
tion for me, do thou satisfy thy promise by fearlessly slaying 
me." Hearing those words of Lakshmana Rama's mind 
was greatly moved. Thereupon having invited his priests and 
ministers there he communicated unto them his promise and 
Durvasa's arrival. Hearing it the ministers and priests re- 
mained silent. Thereupon Vasishtha, of unmitigated efful- 
gence, said : — "O highly illustrious and mighty armed Rama, 
I knew before by virtue of my asceticism, of this thy present 
destruction and separation from Lakshmana. Time is power- 
ful ; do not falsify thy promise. Promise not carried out, 
brings on the destruction of virtue. And on the wane of 
virtue, forsooth, the three worlds, with celestials, saints, 
mobile and immobile creations, shall be destroyed. Therefore, 
O foremost of men, do thou protect, the universe by suffering 
separation from Lakshmana, in the interest of the preservation 
of the three worlds." All other ministers and priests agreed 
with Vasishtha's words. Thereupon hearing their moral 
counsels, Rama said to Lakshmana before the assembly :— 
" O Lakshmana, it is not proper to act against morality, I do 
therefore renounce thee ; for the pious hold that destruction 
and renounciation are all the same." Rlma saying this, 
Lakshmana did not go to his own house, but with eyes full 
of tears specially repaired therefrom. Having reached the 
banks of Saraju and rinsed his mouth he stood there with 
folded palms. And having obstructed all passages he did not 
breathe any more. Lakshmana, the younger brother of 
Rama, being thus engaged in penances, having obstructed his 
breath, Apsaras, Indra and other deities and Rishis showered 
flowers on him. Thereupon beyond the sight of men, 
having taken the highly powerful Lakshmana within his body. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1625 RAM AY AN A. 

the king of celestials entered his own city. Thereupon be- 
holding Lakshmana, the fourth portion of Vishnu arrived at 
their city the celestials were greatly delighted and engaged 
in his worship. 



.AVING forsaken Lakshmana and being stricken with 
sorrow and grief Rama said to his citizens and ministers : — 
11 Having placed the pious and heroic Bharata on the throne 
of Ayodhya I shall to-day repair to woods. Do ye, with- 
out any delay collect there all articles of installation. I 
shall follow the way which has been wended by Lakshmana." 
Hearing the words of Raghava, the subjects with their heads 
downwards remained motionless like so many dead bodies. 
Hearing Rama's words Bharata was also stupified and speak- 
ing ill of the kingdom, said : — "O King, I swear by truth, that 
far from kingdom I do not wish to live in heaven even with- 
out thee : O King, of these two princes, Kusi and Lava do 
thou place Kusi in Kosala and Lava in North Kosala : And 
let quick-moving emissaries go to Satrughna and communi- 
cate unto him the intelligence of our going there." Hearing 
those words of Bharata and beholding the subjects stricken 
with sorrow having their heads downwards, Vasishtha 
said : — " Behold, O Rama, the subjects have placed them- 
selves on the ground. Do thou, therefore ; apprised of their 
intention, satisfy their desire." Raising up the subjects 
according to the words of Vasishtha Rama said : — " What 
good can I do for you ! " Hearing Rama's words they 
said : — " O King, we shall follow thee wherever thou shalt 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


go. If thou hast any love or affection for the citizens do 
thou permit them that they may follow thy good path with their 
wives and children. O lord, if thou dost not forsake us, let 
us all go wherever thou wilt, — be it a forest, an intractable 
tract, a river or an ocean. O great king, by this we shall be 
greatly delighted. We pray for this boon only. Our delight 
consists in following thee in everything." Observing such a 
firm devotion of the citizens Rima agreed to that. There- 
upon having gone through his duties he installed Kusi in 
the kingdom of Kosala and Lava in the northern country. 
Having thus installed the high-souled and heroic Kusi and 
Lava and conferred upon each of them thousand chariots, 
Ajuta Nigas, Ajuta horses and various jewels and riches 
he established them in their respective kingdoms. Having 
thus settled the princes he despatched an emissary to 



b AV!NG been despatched by Rima, quick-moving 
emissaries speedily arrived at Mathura. Continually travelling 
for three nights and days, they arrived there and communi- 
cated unto Satrughna the intelligence. Having informed 
him of the renouncing of Lakshmana, Rima's promise and 
the following of the citizens they said :— " The intelligent 
Rima has reared for Kusi the spacious city of Kusavati 
at the foot of the Vindhya range. The city of Sravanti 
has been reared for Lava, and the mighty car-warriors 
Rima and Bharata, making Ajodhya void of men, have 
addressed themselves for repairing to heaven." Having 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1927 RAM AY AN A. 

speedily communicated unto him this intelligence the emis- 
saries took rest. Thereupon they asked Satrughna to pro- 
ceed soon. Observing the dreadful destruction of his race, 
Satrughna sent for his subjects and priests and informed 
them of everything. He also communicated unto them his 
own destruction with his brothers. Thereupon the king 
Satrughna determined upon installing his two sons in the 
kingdom. Suvahu was placed on the throne of Mathura and 
Satrughati became the king of Vidisha. Having thus estab- 
lished Suvahu in Mathura, and Satrughati in Vidisha, the 
great hero Satrughna ascended his car and went to Ajodhya. 
And there he saw the great Rama, clothed in silk raiment 
burning like fire in the midst of the ascetics. Thereupon 
remembering his duty he saluted Rama, conversant with 
piety and with folded hands said : — " I have placed my two 
sons on the throne of my kingdom. I have now resolved 
upon following thee, O King. O hero, do not.command me 
otherwise. I pray only that I may not neglect thy com- 
mand." Thereupon understanding the firm resolution of 
Satrughna, the descendant of Raghu agreed. Immediately 
after Rama had said this, monkeys assuming shapes at will 
bears and Rakshas, began to assemble there. Apprised 
of Rama's determination of going to heaven, monkeys, born 
of the celestials, Rishis and Gandharbas taking Sugriva 
before them, came there to see Rama. And they all said : — 
" O Rama, O foremost of men, if thou dost repair to heaven 
forsaking us all, it will be hurling Yama's rod upon us." The 
highly powerful Sugriva too saluting Rama said : — iC O lord 
of men, having placed Angada on the throne I have come 
hither. I have determined upon following thee, O King." 
Hearing the words of monkeys, Rama said that their desire 
would be fulfilled. He then said to Bibhishana the king of 
Rakshasas : — " As long as people shall breathe, O Bibhishana, 
iO highly powerful lord of Rakshasas, thou shalt* preserve 
by body in LankJ. As long as the moon, the sun and the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


earth shall exist and as long as my story shall remain current, 
thy kingdom shall be in existence. Thou didst, out of friend- 
ship, carry out my behests and perform my works. Do 
thou piously govern thy subjects. I should not speak any 
thing else. What shall I say more unto thee, O highly power- 
ful lord of Rakshasas. Worship Jagannath (the lord of 
the world), the presiding deity of the Ikshawku race." 
Having thus addressed the king of Rakshasas always 
obeying Raghava's command, Kakuthstha said to Hanu- 
m&n : — " It is settled that thou shalt live forever, do thou, 
now observe thy promise. As long as my history shall run 
current in this world do thou at my command live happily/' 
Being thus addressed by the high-souled RSghava Hanuman 
attained to great delight and said: — " As long as the sacred 
theme shall pass current in this world I shall live here 
carrying out thy commands." Thereupon he said to the 
J&mbhuv&n, Brahma's son, Mainda, Dwivida and five others 
in his company: — "As long as the Kali Yuga exists do 
ye all live." Having thus addressed them all Kakuthstha 
said to bears and monkeys. " Do ye come all with me." 


A.FTER the night had expired the highly illustrious 
Rftma having a spacious breast and eyes like lotus petals said 
to the priest : — " Let the brilliant .umbrellas Agnihotra, and 
B&japeya go with the Br&hmanas before, which look well in 
the great road." Thereupon the highly effulgent Vasishtha 
arranged duly all the ceremonies necessary for going to the 
next world. Thereupon wearing a thin cloth, holding kusa 
grass by his fingers, and reciting Vedic hymns he proceeded 


1929 RAM AY AN A. 

to the banks of Saraju. Having given up all actions of 
senses, and suffered the pains of going on foot he issued 
out of the city speechless like unto the burning sun. On 
his right hand side was the lotus-handed Sree, on his left 
hand side was the goddess Earth and before him was the 
power of destruction. Various arrows, huge bows, and dag- 
gers, assuming forms followed him. And also went with 
him the four Vedas in the shape of the Brahmanas, the all 
protecting Gayatri, Omkara and Vasatkara. The high-souled 
Rishis and great Asuras followed the high-souled Rama to 
the open gates of heaven. All the female servants, old and 
young, the damsels of the seraglio accompanied by servants 
having no manhood, Bharata and Lakshmana accompanied 
by their wives, followed him with Agnihotra. All those 
high-souled ones, assembled there with Agnihotra and follow- 
ed Kakuthstha with their wives and children. The minis- 
ters and the servants, with their sons, beasts and friends, 
followed Rama delightedly. Thereupon all the subjects 
healthy and delighted went after Raghava, attracted by his 
accomplishments and cleansed of their sins. All the females 
and males, with their beasts, birds and friends, delightedly 
followed Raghava. Bathed and delighted all the monkeys, 
healthy and joyous following Rama, created a continued tumult. 
There was none poorly, aggrieved or miserable — all of them 
appeared wonderkilly happy and i delighted. When Rama 
issued out of the city, whoever came to see him followed him 
being desirous of going to heaven. Bears, monkeys and 
Rakshasas and all the citizens, followed him with great 
devotion and collected minds. And all other animals, that 
were beyond the view of all in the city went after Raghava 
proceeding to heaven. All creations mobile and immobile, 
"akuthstha followed him. All beings in 
breathe a$d are very minute, accom- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




_AViNG thus gone for more than a half Yoyana, the 
descendant of Raghu espied Saraju of holy waters flow- 
ing towards the west. And having crossed that river of 
rising waves to some extent, R&ma, with his followers 
arrived at the place where he should give up his person. 
Thereupon at that moment, Brahma, the grandfather of. all 
encircled by all high-souled deities and with hundred kotis 
of celestial cars, arrived there where K&kuthstha had ad- 
dressed himself to repair to heaven. The aerial way was 
full of lustre but its brilliance was increased the more 
by the native effulgence of the inhabitants of heavens, 
always performing pious actions. There blew the holy, 
fragrant and delightful winds and there fell profusely 
celestial flowers from the bands of the deities. The place 
was rilled with the noise of hundreds' of bugles sounded by 
Gandharbas and Apsaris. And then R&ma prepared him- 
self to descend to the waters of Saraju. Thereupon the 
Patriarch gave vent to the following accents from the 
welkin ; — " Come O Vishnu ; may good betide thee ; by our 
good fortune thou art coming here ; O R&ghava hear — O 
thou having mighty arms, do thou enter here with thy 
brothers, resembling the celestials in brilliance in whatever 
form thou likest— either in that of the sky or in thy own 
Vishnu form. Thou art the refuge of the creatures — nobody 
knoweth thee. Thou art above the range of thought ; great 
immortal and imperishable ; nobody knoweth thee save 
Mftyi, having wide eyes, thy former spouse. Do thou enter 
here thyself in whatever effulgent form thou likest." Hearing 
the words of the Patriarch and determining everything 
the high-minded Rlma entered there bodily with his brothers 
in his Vishnu form. Thereupon all the celestials Sidhyas 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

193 1 RAM AY AN A. 

Marutas, headed by Indra and Agni worshipped that deity, 
Vishnu. So did all the celestial Rishis, Gandharbas Apsar£s, 
Suparnas, Nagas, Yakhas, demons, Danavas and Rakshasas. 
Thereupon eulogising him the celestials said : — " Our region 
is now freed from sins and all here have been delighted 
and all their desires have been fulfilled/' Thereupon the 
highly effulgent Vishnu said to the Patriarch Brahma :— 
11 It behoveth thee, O thou of good vows, to allot to 
those people their proper regions. These illustrious ones 
have followed me out of love. They are worthy of my 
respect for they are my devotees and have renounced 
their persons for me." Hearing the words of Vishnu, the 
lord Brahma, father of all creatures, said : — All these 
people who have come here shall go to the region named 
SantSnaka. This region is intended even * for him, who 
though born in the most degraded state, thinks of all ob- 
jects as Vishnu. There is no question about their attaining 
to this region who, out of devotion, have followed thee and 
renounced their persons. This region has all the attributes 
of the Brahma region and is next to it. The monkeys and 
bears shall enter into their respective celestial forms. They 
shall enter into the deities from whom they had respectively 
originated. Sugriva shall enter into the Sun's region. And 
they shall obtain their respective fathers' forms among the 
celestials present." The lord of the deities having said this, 
all those who were present at the holy pilgrimage of Gopratra 
descended into the waters of Saraju with eyes full of tears 
of joy. Having bathed there, given up their lives delightedly 
and renounced their human forms they ascended the celestial 
cars. And having obtained the waters of Saraju, hundreds 
of those that were born in the race of birds attained to the 
land of immortals obtaining the respective celestial forms 
(they had before). And in those celestial forms, they looked 
effulgent like the deities. And going to the waters of Saraju 
all. objects, mobile and immobile, having bathed there, repaired 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to the excellent celestial region. Having renounced their 
bodies in the water thereof all the bears, monkeys, and 
Rakshasas attained to the land of deities. Having thus set- 
tled in heaven all those arrived there the father, of creatures 
with the deities, delighted and happy, repaired to the highest 


JL HIS Story ends with the UttarS. It fc held in reverence 
by Brahm& composed by V&lmiki and passes as the foremost 
of all under the name of the RSmayana. Thereupon as 
before, Vishnu, who compriseth the three worlds and all 
objects, mobile and immobile, again established himself as 
before in the land of immortals. Thereupon the celestials 
the Gandharbas, the great Rishis used to hear happily every 
day in heaven this poem of R&mayana. At the Sarddha 
ceremony the wise should chant this R&mayana sacred like 
the Vedas, removing sins and increasing life and prosperity. 
Reading even a single verse of this poem, one who hath no 
son, obtaineth him ; one having no riches, gets by them — and 
people are freed from all sins. By reading even one slokar 
people are freed from all sins which they commit every day. 
Clothes, cows, and gold should be conferred upon him who 
chants this poem, for he being pleased all the deities remain 
satisfied. Whoever reads this story of R&mayana, conferring 
a long life is honoured in this world along with his sons 
and grand-sons and as well as in the land of the dead. Who- 
ever shall read this R&mayana either in the morning, noon, 
or evening, shall never be wearied. The picturesque city of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i 9 33 RAM AY AN A. 

Ayodhya remained devoid of men for many long years but 
was again peopled under the regeme of the King Rishava. 
Pracheta's son Valmiki composed this, poem, conferring long 
life, together with the future story of the diety and the Uttara- 
Kandam. Even Brahmi admitted this. 

■ »»• < - 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC